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9th std social science notes eng version freedom

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9th Social Science (English medium) Notes    ͟͠͞8

Social Science

(Revised Notes)

Ninth Standard




AM, Govt (Ex munciple) High school, Davangere North.



Veeresh P Arakeri, AM, Govt (Ex Munciple) High School, Davangere North. 9986261446                                          Page 2 



Chapter - 1

Christianity and Islam

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

1. The birth place of Jesus Christ is 

2. The place of Jesus’ crucification is 

3. The birth place of Mohammad Paigamber is

4. The holy book of Islam is 

5. The successors of Mohammad Paigambar are known as                       .

6.                      was the first Khalif.

7. Islam originated in

8. The holy book of Christianity is 

Answer:-   (1)   Bethlehem   (2)   Golgotha   (3) Mecca (4) Quran (5) Khalifs. (6) Aboobakar (7) Arabia (8) ‘Bible’

II.   Discuss   with   your   friends   and   write answers to the following Questions.

1. Write a note on the life of Jesus Christ.

•        Jesus Christ was born into a poor family of

Joseph  and  Mary at  Bethlehem  village  near


He did not get proper education. Despite this he acquired a lot of religious knowledge.

At  the  age  of  thirty  he  came  under  the influence of John Baptist and was baptized by him.

He enlightened the people in distress by divine teachings and made them psychologically strong.

This made him very popular among the people and he was known as a messiah or the saviour of the people.

Gradually people considered him as a godly man. The priestly class of Jews opposed this.

They complained against Jesus Christ to the governor of Roman Empire Pontius Pilate, charging him of treason.

•        After the trial he was taken to Golgotha on a

Friday and crucified on the cross.

2. List the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Jesus Christ’s preachings are:

1. God is one and he is most merciful. He is the creator of entire creation.

2. Everyone should develop brotherhood feelings about others.

3. Loving the people in distress is equal to worshipping God.


4.  One  should  serve  others  without  expecting anything from them.

5. Serving people is equal to the worship of God.

6. If one repents for his mistakes God will forgive him.

7. Love your enemy. Do well to the people who try to harm you.

3. How did Christianity expand?

After the crucifixion  of Christ,  his  disciples were tortured. Some of them were crucified.

During  the  time  of  Emperor  Constantine, Christianity was adopted as the State Religion.

•        Subsequently,  Christianity spread  throughout


Today,     Christian     Churches     are     found throughout the world and have a large number of followers.

4.  Write  a  note  on  the  life  of  Mohammad


•        The Mohammad Paigambar was born in 570

C.E at Mecca His parents were Abdulla and


He lost his parents during his childhood and was brought up by his uncle.

In Mecca he married widow Khadijah. They had two sons and four daughters.

•        He started meditating deeply for long hours on

Mount Heera and he achieved enlightment.

Soon,  his  principles  became  very  popular among people. This known as ‘Quran’.

When Paigambar opposed polytheism people of Mecca conspired to murder him.

He travelled from Mecca to Madina when he became aware of this in C.E 622(Hijra).

The  people  of  Madina  welcomed  him,  and they defeated the people of Mecca.

Paigambar came back to Mecca. Finally they also became the followers of the religion propagated by Paigambar Gradually his principles spread all over the Arab region. Paigambar died in C.E 632.

5. What is Hijra?

When  Paigambar  opposed  polytheism  strongly,

the enraged people of Mecca conspired to murder him. He travelled from Mecca to Madina when he became aware of this in C.E 622. This incident is known as Hijra (the departure)

6. What are the teachings of Islam?

The teachings of Islam are- 


1. God is one. A simple prayer is enough to win the heart of the God.

2. One should lead an honest and principled life and should keep away from all the bad habits.

3.  One  should  have  respect  for  women  and compassion for the poor and weak.

7. Name the five important rituals of Islam.

Islam follows five important rituals.


Chapter - 2

Medieval India And

Political Transition

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. The founder of Grujara Prathihara dynasty is 

1. Kalima – Belief only in Allah. Mohammad is       

his prophet.

2. Namaz - Prayer for Allah for five times a day.

3. Roza- Fasting in the month of Ramazan.

4.  Zakath-  Definite  sum  to  be  spared  in  the income to give to the poor.

5. Haj - Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime.

8. What are the main Contributions of Islam?

After accepting Islam, Arabs have been known

for the following contributions.

1. Medicine for Measles and other diseases and books on medicine.


2. Prithivraj Chouhan defeated in the first battle of Terrain.

3.  The  prominent  Commander  of  Mohammed

Gohri was 

4.  The  first  woman  to  rule  among  the  Delhi

Sultans was 

5.   The   famous   Sultan   of   Khilji   Dynasty was

6. The  capital  city  was  shifted  from  Delhi  to during the rule of Thuglaq.

7.                        was written by Alberuni

8.  Quwatul  Islam  mosque  was  constructed  by 

2. New inventions in Science and Mathematics         

3. The spread of knowledge built by Medieval 

Arab  and  Persia  in  the  field  of  Geography  and

Astronomy to other parts of the world.

4. Islam influenced the art and architecture. The features of Islamic architecture can be seen in the buildings built in Roman, Byzantine and Persian empires.

9. Name the main sects in Islam.

The most important sects of Islam are Shia and


10. Name the main sects in Islam. Contributions of Christianity

1. Christianity has taught the noble principles of

peace and brotherhood to the world.

2.   The   educational   centres   established   by Churches  and  missionaries  have  played  a significant role in the growth of education.

3. Christianity has introduced the Gothic style in architecture.

4. Missionaries have extended health services all over the world.

5. Women and weaker sections have been largely benefitted by the education. This has brought qualitative changes in the society. It is known as empowerment.

11. Name the main sects in Islam.

The most important sects of Christianity are- 1) Catholics 2) Protestants.


Ans:- (1) Nagabhatta, (2) Mohammed Ghori (3) Qutubuddin Aibak (4) Razia sultana (5) Alauddin (6) Devagiri (7) Tarik-E-Yamini (8) Qutubuddin Aibak

ii. Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the contributions of Rajput kings to the field of literature.

Rajput kings themselves were scholars. Kings like Bhoja, Munja have written various literary


Munja had poets Padmagupta and Halayudha in his court.

King  Bhoja  had  scholars  like  Shanthisena, Prabhachandra Suri, and Ghanapala during his rule.

•        The Jayadeva’s Poetic work ‘Geethagovinda’,

•        Bharavi’s ‘Keerathanarjuneeya’,

•        Bharthruhari’s ‘Ravana Vadha’,

•        Mahendrapala’s   ‘Kavya   Meemamse’   were

written during the rule of Rajputs.

•        Dramas like Rajashekara’s ‘Bala  Ramayana’

and ‘Karpuramanjari’;

•        Bhavabhuti’s        ‘Mahaveeracharitha’        &

‘Uthararamacharita’; and

Historical    works    like    Kalhana’s    ‘Raja Tharangini’; Jayanika’s ‘Prithiviraja Vijaya’ and Hemachandra’s ‘Kumarapla Charitha’ are the important works. 


•        ‘Prithiviraja  Raso’  by  Chand  Bardahi  and

‘Bhoja  Prabandha’  by  Balalla  are  the  noted

biographies of Rajput rulers.

2.   Explain   the   administration   system   of

Iltamush briefly.

•        Iltamush   divided   his   kingdom   into   Iktas

(provinces)      and       appointed       Iktadhars

(provincial officers) to run administration.

He appointed a group of forty sardars to advise him in administrative issues.

The Prime Minister and Judges used to advise him.

Iltamush  brought  gold  and  silver  coins  into circulation.

3.  What   were   the   administrative   reforms implemented by Alluddin Khilji?

Reforms in the administration.

1. He  abolished  religious  endowments,  Inams

(gift) lands and subsidy.

2. An    efficient    intelligence    network    was established by him.

3. He prohibited alcohol, drugs and dice game.

4. He  banned  association  formation  among  his

Sardars (lieutenants).

5. Farmers with minor landholdings and also the big landlords had to pay taxes.

6. He appointed revenue officials to collect the fixed taxes from the farmers.

7. Military reforms: The salary of the soldier givn in the form of cash.


named  ‘Adli’  into  circulation.  Copper  and brass coins were also brought into circulation symbolically.

5.  What  were  the   contributions   of  Delhi

Sultans to art and architecture? Give examples.

•     The  Delhi  Sultans  introduced  a  new  style  of

architecture       known       as       ‘Indo-Islamic’


•     Arches,   domes   and   minarets   are  the  main features of this style.

•     The Delhi Sultans built forts, Mosques, palaces, public buildings, madrasas and Dharmashalas.

•     Qutub  minar,  Quvat-Ul-Islam  mosque,  Allai

Dharavaja, Juwait Khana

•     Mosques are the few examples of Indo-Islamic style.

Chapter – 3

Religious Promoters And

Social Reformers

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. Shankara was born at in Kerala.

2. “The  world  is  an  illusion,  Brahma  alone  is the  Truth”.  This statement was declared by         _

3. Proponent of Dwaita philosophy is

4.    Ramanujacharya's    disciples    are    called 

8. The process of stamping the horses called as

‘Dhag’ came into effect.


5.  The  hoysala  king  _ Ramanujacharya to his kingdom.


had  invited 

9. He  created  a  system  wherein  the  common




and   his  disciples  advocated 

people had access to pulses, cereals, cooking

oil, sugar, salt and fuel at fair prices.

10. Similarly  he  established  markets  to  sell horses and slaves.

4.   What   were   the   administrative   reforms implemented by Mohammed-bin-Tughlaq.

Administrative reforms-

1. Revenue reforms: An official record that had all the details of lands implemented by him.

2. He established department of agriculture.

3. The uncultivated lands were made cultivable.

4. Shifting of his Capital: He wanted to shift his capital from Delhi to devagiri because to establish the capital city at the centre of the vast  empire,  and  to  protect  the  capital  city from foreign invasions.

5. Experiment of symbolic Coins- He brought

gold  coin  named  ‘Dinar’  and  silver  coin


Veerashaiva philosophy

Ans:- (1) Kalati (2) Shankaracharya (3) Madwacharya (4) Shrivaishnavites (5) Vishnuvardhana (6) Basaveshwara

ii. Answer the following questions-

1. Explain the Adwaitha philosophy.

Adwaitha  means  Brahma  is  the  absolute truth, the rest of the world is false.

The soul is one with Brahma, and life is not separate from Brahma.

•        Ultimately, we should merge our ‘atma’ (soul)

with the absolute truth, Brahma.

•        Only then we can attain moksha (liberation).

2.   Which  is  the  philosophy  advocated  by

Ramanujacharya? What is their sect called? 


Ramanujacharya    advocated    ‘Vishistadwaitha’

philosophy. His sect called Shrivaishnavites.

3.   Explain   the   philosophy   advocated   by


•        Ramanujacharya’s   philosophy   is   called   as


According to this philosophy Jeeva (life) and Prakruthi (Nature) are under the control of Bramha.

Both  Atma  and  Paramathma cannot  become one simutaneously.

He    said    that    world    is    the    expressed manifestation of Bramha and world is a reality.

In  order  to  achive  Mukthi  (salvtion)  Bhakti and Prapathi (complete surrendrance to god) are important.

4. What are the teachings of Madhwacharya?

According to Madhwacharya, the world is not maya or illusion.

•        It is as true as Paramatma or the Divine Soul.

Between these, the Divine soul is independent and the rest of the world is illusionary.

•        The Divine soul and the human soul have a

Lord and Servant relationship.

•        Lord Vishnu or Narayana alone is supreme.

Worship  of  Lord  Vishnu  can  elevate  the human  soul   and   thus  enable  it   to   attain moksha.

5.  Write  a  note  on  the  ‘Work  is  Worship’

philosophy of Basaveshwara.

Basaveshwara  advocated  ‘self  Reliance  and insisted one should earn one’s living’.

He  also   declared   no   profession   in   more important or less important.

•        He nurtured the culture of ‘work is workship’

through his physical labour philosophy.

By    declaring    “Body    as    the    temple”, Basaveshwara tried to implement work is workship philosophy in life.

These thinkings are still the guiding lights of the present society.

6. Who established Anubhava Mantapa? What were its objectives?

Basavanna  started  a  Sharana  spiritual  centre

called “Anubhava Mantapa” at Basava kalyana of

present Bidar.



1. They   wanted   to   eradicate   various   socio cultural issues like gender discrimination and caste system.

2. They  were  inisting  that  one  should  remain transparent in his life. His external behaviour and  internal  thinking  should  remain  clean. This transparent state of life is the ‘ultimate truth’ they declared.

3. Their vachanas reach the common people and created a social movement.

7.       Name       the       books       written       by


•        Shankarabhasya,

•        Anandalahari,

•        Soundaryalahari,

•        Shivanandalahari,

•        Viveka choodamani,

•        Prabudda   sudhakara   and   Dakshinamurthy

stotra are some of shankaracharya’s books.

•        His hymn ‘‘Bhajagovindam’’ is world famous.

Chapter - 4

Vijayanagara And

Bahamani Kingdoms

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. Vijayanagar empire was established in the year


2. The Madhuravijaya was written by 

3. Praudhadevaraya’s minister was     

4.  The  king  who  wrote  Amukta  Malyada  in

Telugu was                     .

5. Madarasa at Bidar was established by 

6. The Kitab-E-Navarasa was written by 

Ans: (1) 1336 A.D., Hakka & Bukka. (2) Gangadevi; (3) Lakkanna Dandesha; (4) Krishnadevaraya; (5) Mohammad Gawan; (6) Ibrahim Adil Shah II

ii. Answer the following questions-

1.   Name   the   four   dynasties   who   ruled

Vijaynanagar Empire.

Four dynasties who ruled Vijayanagar Empire are

(1) Sangama, (2) Saluva,

(3) Tuluva, and

(4) Araveedu. 


2. What were the achievements of Devaraya


(a) He defeated the king Gajapati Kapilendra of

Orissa and seized Kondaveedu.

(b) He expanded his kingdom upto Krishna river in the north east by suppressing the regional leader of the border.

(c) He defeated the Kerala state and received royalties from Kerala and Srilanka.

Hence he came to be known as Dakshinapathada

Chakravarthi (the Emperor of the South).

(d) He chased the traditional foe Ahmed Shah of Bahamani till Bijapur and occupied Mudgal and Bankapura.

(e) His commander, Lakkanna Dandesha, took up a successful naval victory.

3. What were the problems Krishnadevaraya had to face when he ascended the throne?

When   Krishnadevaraya   came   to   power,   the

kingdom was besieged by various complex internal and external problems.

(a) The Europeans, who had arrived through new sea routes, had established colonies.

(b) The Moghuls of the north were trying to expand their kingdom in the southern region.

(c)  The  five Shahi  kingdoms  of  the  Bahamani dynasty became powerful Sultanates and plunged into war against Krishnadevaraya. And

(d) The kings of Ummatthur and Orissa were a constant source of threat.

4. What are the contributions of Vijayanagar

Empire to the economic system and society? Economic system:

(a) Land tax was the main source of revenue for the kingdom.

(b)  Farmers  gave  ¼  of  their  income  to  the

government as tax.

(c) Professional tax, revenue tax, road tax, market tax, commercial tax, import and export taxes and tributes from the vassals were other forms of revenue to the kingdom.

(d)   Agriculture   was   the   backbone   of   the economy.  Many  important  food  and  cash  crops were grown.

(e)  Many  wells,  tanks  and  canals  were constructed for irrigation and agriculture.

(f) There was great progress in the field of industries and commerce.

(g) Spices like pepper, cloves and cardamom, salt petre, iron ore, diamonds, granulated sugar, must, sandal perfume etc. were exported.

(h) There were many textile industries.


(i) Coins of different denominations like gold coins, gadyaana, pagoda, silver coins and copper coins were in use. There were diamonds, iron ore centers, Sapphires used to be available in plenty.

G) Countries like Arab, China and Portugal had trade relations with the Vijayanagar Empire.


(a) The society was based on the 4-tiered caste

system. However, there was also occupation-based caste system.

(b)  There  were  many  skilled  artisans, blacksmiths, bell-metal smiths, carpenters, weavers and cobblers in the society.

(c) The practice of child marriage, sati and devadasi were prevalent.

(d) Though monogamy was the common practice, kings and rich people had many wives.

5.  Describe  the  art  and  architecture  of  the

Vijayanagar period.

The unique feature of Vijayanagar architecture was the construction of huge auditoriam and

marriage halls.

Temples had huge towers (rayagopura), leaf- shaped arches and platforms.

In  this  art,  more  than  ornamentation,  the qualities of grandeur, awe and elegance were given importance.

Rough granite stone (kanashile) was used for construction of these structures.

The temples were built in Hampi, Shringeri, Tirupati, Lepakshi, Karkala, Bhatkal, kanchi, Srishaila, Kolar etc.

The       most       important       temple       was Vidyashankara temple at Shrigeri  which has unique structure.

The Vijaya Vitthala temple of Hampi is known for its magnificent architectural beauty.

The saptaswara musical pillars, huge marriage halls and the stone chariot have enhanced the beauty of this temple.

•        The   most   ancient   temple   at   Hampi,   the

Virupaksha temple has a vast courtyard/ hall.

6. How can Gawan be considered as the best

Prime minister in Bahamani dynasty?

As   a   Prime   Minister   of   the   Bahamani kingdom,    Mohammed    Gawan    took    the

Bahamani  kingdom  to  great  heights  through his efficient administration and victories.

•        Gawan conquered Konkan, Goa and Belgaum.

•        He      invaded      Orissa      and      conquered



In the year 1481 A.D., he invaded Kanchi and plundered its huge wealth.

7. Describe the administration and revenue system during the rule of the Bahamani sultans.


(a)  There  were  three  levels  of  administration

namely Central, Provincial and Village. Among these, there was revenue, judicial and military administration too.

(b) The Sultan was the chief of the central administration.

(c) The cabinet was called Majlis E-Ilwith.

(d)  Top  officials,  commandants,  ulemas  and amins were friends and relatives of the Sultan.

(e) Gawan converted the existing 4 provinces into

8 units and these provinces were administered by

15 governments.

(t) The governments were divided into paraganas. Kotwal, Deshmukh and Desai were the administrators of the paraganas. The village was the final independent unit of administration.

Taxation system:

(a) Land tax was the main source of income for

the kingdom.

(b) Amir-E-Jumlas were the head of the revenue authorities.

(c) ⅓ to ½ of the agricultural produce was collected as land tax.

(d) There were 50 kinds of taxes including house, mines, tobacco grasslands, trade and employment

8. Explain the education, art and architecture of the Bahamani sultans.

The  educational  policy  of  the  Adil  Shahis was to propagate Islamic culture.

There were schools known as maktabs. They were under the control of mosques.

The students in the maktabs were taught the alphabet, religion, law, poetry and rhetoric.

The   madras   as   were   centers   of   higher education.

Mohammed   Gawan   who   was   a   scholar himself, established a madras a (college) at Bidar.

•        It had a library with around 3000 manuscripts.

The college was a lodge for students, teachers, and orthodox people.

Astronomy,          grammar,         mathematics, philosophy and political science were studied in this college.

Art and architecture: The Bahamani sultans developed lndo Sareenic style of architecture.


The Jamia mosque built by Ali Adil Shah I, Ibrahim Roza, Gol Gumbaz, Gagan Mahal and Asar Mahals are the important world famous monuments.

The  Gol  Gumbaz,  at  Bijapur  is  one  of  the greatest structures in the world. It has an area of 1800 sq ft. There are 7storied minarets in the four corners of the  building.  There is  a huge dome in the center. The unique feature of this dome is that is one whispers standing on one side of the dome, it can be heard clearly on the other side. It is the biggest Dome in India.

Chapter – 5

The Moghuls And The


i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1.  The  founder  of  the  Moghul  dynasty  was


2. The most famous emperor among the Moghuls was               .

3. The king who built the Taj Mahal at Agra was


4. The Moghul emperor who established the new religion Din-e-Ilahi was 

5. Shivaji’s mother was 

Ans: (l) Babar; (2) Akbar; (3) Shahjahan; (4) Akbar; (5) Jijabai

ii. Answer the following questions.

1.   Describe   the   military   achievements   of


Babar defeated the Delhi Sultan lbrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D. and

established the Moghul dynasty in India.

•        Over a period of four years, he defeated Rana

Sangramsingh of Mewad,

•        the Rajput king Medinarayana of Chanderi and

•        Ibrahim Lodhi's brother, Mohammed Lodhi.

Babar conquered Panipat, Goghra and Kanwa He established Moghul rule over a vast area in North India.

2.  Explain  the  characteristics  of  Sher-Shah administration.

Sher Shah established an efficient administration.

1)  He  divided  his  kingdom  into  four  main departments. 


2) He was the first ruler who constructed four main highways that connected the major cities. On either side of the highway, shade-giving trees were planted and 1700 sarais were constructed.

3) The land in the kingdom had been classified as excellent, average and bad according to their level of fertility. The farmers gave part of their income as land tax to the government.

4) If there was damage to crops during the movement of troops, the government compensated the farmers.

3. What are the areas won by Akbar?

•        Akbar defeated Hemu in the Second Battle of


•        Akbar  conquered  Malva,  Jaipur,  Gondavan,


He conquered, Malwa and gained the authority to collect Chouth and Sardeshmukhi taxes.

He got a vast stretch between the Narmada and Chambal rivers and 50 lakh rupees as compensation tor defeating the Moghals in a battle near Bhopal.

He  conquered  Salcet  and  Basin  from  the Portuguese  and  Janjira  from  the Siddhis  He not only ruled efficiently but also regained the glory of the Maratha Empire.

Chapter - 6

Bhakti Panth

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words : 

Chittor, Ranatharnbhor, Kalinjar, Gujarat and


1. Bhakti means


to God. 


•        Akbar fight against Rana Pratap (The Battle of

Haldighat) and emerged victorious.

The   remaining   states   of   Kashmir,   Sindh, Orissa,  Baluchistan,  Khandhar  and Ahmednagar came under Akbar.

4. Describe the contributions of Shahjahan to art and architecture.

ShahJahan  was  called  a  great  builder.  He constructed the famous, immensely valuable ruby-studded Peacock throne.

He constructed the TajMahal in Agra which is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

•        He constructed the Red Fort at Delhi.

•        He built Akbari Mahal, Jehangiri Mahal.

He built forts in Lahore and Allahabad similar to the one at Agra.

Hence, his period is referred to as the 'Golden

Age of Moghal Art and Architecture.

5. Describe Shivaji’s system of administration.

Shivaji      had      organized      an      efficient administrative system in his vast kingdom.

He   had   divided   his   kingdom   into   many provinces.   They   were   called   Swaraj   and Moghal areas.

There were minsters known as Asthapradhans in the central government to assist the king.

•        In addition to them, there were other officials.

Province,    district    and    village   were   the administrative units.

6. Explain the achievements of Bajirao I.

•        Bajirao I was an unparalleled warrior.


2. The famous follower of Ramanand was 

3. Kabir’s followers are called 

4.  The  collection  of  Chaitanya’s  philosophical

thoughts is called                 .

Ans: (1) devotion/ Trusting, (2) Kabir Das, (3) Kabirpanthis, (4) Chaitanya


ii. Answer the following questions-

1. What are the teachings of Kabir?

He condemned caste system and multiple idol worship.

Declared that God is one, and he is the same for both Hindus and Muslims.

He tried to bring about harmony and tolerance between the two communities.

Kabir preached the greatness of humourness that goes    beyond    caste    and    religion boundaries.

2. Who are Sikhs? Which is their holy book?

The followers of Guru Nanak are called Sikhs.

His teachings are collected in a book called Grant

Sahib. It is their holy book.

3.    Explain    the    concept    of    Bhakti    by


Purandaradasa   rejected   false   Bhakthi   and insisted on inner reflections.

He  declared  without  inner  purity,  external purity is of no use.

He  said  ‘What  is  the  use  of  cleaning  the external filth without cleansing the internal filth’. 


He also said without faith, the mere dipping in a river is of no use.

4. What are the effects of the Bhakti movement?

Reformation   of   the   Hindu   practices   and bringing about harmony between Hindus and

Muslims were the main purposes of the Bhakti movement.

The  reformers  were  successful  in  removing many weaknesses in the Hindu society.

The  regional  languages  of  India  flourished since the reformers wrote in these languages. This enabled development of Indian culture.

•        This  movement  facilitated  the  evolution  of

Indian Culture.

It also made India to be identified as a land of multi cultures.

Chapter – 7

Europe In The Middle Ages

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. The cultural bankruptcy of Europe is  called


2. The owner of the land was called 

3. The person who maintained the land was called


4. The weak person who was responsible for the maintenance of land was called 

Ans. (1) Dark Age (2) noble (3) vassals. (4)labourers

ii. Answer the following.

1. What is feudal system?

Feudal System is the political military and social

system in the middle Ages, based on the holding of lands in fief or fee and on the resulting relations between lord and vassal.

2. List the advantages and disadvantages of the feudal system.

(A) The advantages of the feudal system-

1.   Simplicity  and   tailor   made  administrative

system is the main contribution.

2. Human protection was guaranteed.

3. The ruling party could not become autocratic as they were dependent on the vassals for military service.

4. There was notable progress in the economic system.

5. Man became aware of his duties and fundamental rights and


6. Savagery of the barbaric communities was controlled.

7. England, France and Germany encouraged literature.

8. Rules and regulations were created and this made the nobles to protect women, the weak and the Christian religion.

(B) The Disadvantages:

1. A class of aristocracy came into being.

2.  Arguments  and  disagreements  began  among the aristocrats, nobles and vassals.

3. Sometimes the nobles started competing with the lords or the kings.

4. Many became traitors and posed a threat to their own regional unity.

5. Judicial system became weak and there was no rule of law.

6. The church and the state were at loggerhens


3. Explain the effects of feudalism.

1. They had absolute control over military. Hence

both  the  political  and  economical  powers  were concentrated in one place.

2. The feudal land lords had to depend on the vassals for military human power. This restricted the exploitation of these classes.

3. The power of Barbarians was brought under control.

4. The human beings realized their rights and duties under the system.

5.  Encouraged  creative  output  in  literature  in

England, France and Germany

6. Feudalism slowly nourished the emergence of cities. They become the center of trade and artecrafts.

7. Clashes took place among ruling class, feudal lords and vassals. Due to this problem, the agreements of feudalism broke down.

4. What were the reasons for the decline of the feudalism?

The main reasons for the downfall of the feudal

system are as follows:

1. The rise of powerful dynastic rule in England, France and Spain.

2. Development of regional languages, nationalism, lust for absolute power in the kings.

3. Military power and the Crusades hastened the fall of many systems.

4. Renaissance and reformation became the main reasons for the weakening of the feudal system. 


Chapter - 8

Modern Europe

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. Renaissance means

2.              is called the father of Renaissance.

3. Followers of Martin Luther are 

4.   The   leader   of   the   Counter   Reformation movement is 

5.  Inventor  of  the  spinning  jenny  machine  is

Ans:- (1) rebirth/ reawaken (2) Petrarch/ Italy; (3) Protestants: (4) Ignatius Loyola, (5) Hargreaves.

ii. Answer the following questions-

1. What were the consequences of religious reformation?

The consequences of religious reformation are:

1.  Christianity  was  divided  into  three  sects  -

Catholic Church, Orthodox Church and Protestant church.

2. Many European kings got liberated from the hold of the Church and the pope.

3.  Religious  reformation  led  to  rise  of nationalism.

4. The confiscated wealth of the Church was utilized for the economic development.

5. Patriotic feelings became strong and the kings of Europe developed religious tolerance.

6. Due to this movement, the literacy field saw progress. Local languages influenced the European minds.

7. The Catholic Church itself underwent reformation and this came to be known as Counter Reformation.

2. What were the reasons for geographical explorations?

1.   When   the   Turks   conquered   the   city   of

Constantinople in 1453 A.D., the Europeans faced the inevitability of finding a new sea route to India.

2. Spain and Portugal were ambitious of competing with Arabs in sea trade.

3. Discovery of new countries opened the possibility spreading Christianity.

4. European curiosity was roused by the adventurous nature of sea voyages towards eastern countries.

5. Mariner's compass and astrolabe equipment were helpful to sailors. Charts and maps were available to sailors.


6.  The  Europeans  believed  that  China  was  a fertile place to make profit.

3.  Which  are  the  water-colour  paintings  of

Leonardo da Vinci?

•        Leonardo da Vinci's paintings are

•        Last Supper and Mona Lisa,

•        Salvator Mundi, Teh Vitruvian Man,

•        Lady with Fur Wrap. etc.,

4. Explain the development of literature in the period of Renaissance with an Example.

Petrarch    is    known    as    the    'Father    of renaissance'. He collected about 200 Latin and

Greek Manuscripts.

A collection of 100 stories called Decameron written in Italian by Boccaccio,

•        The famous work Divine Comedy by Dante,

•        Canterbury Tales by Chaucer of England,

•        Don Quixote by Cervantes of Spain,

Utopia written by Thomas More of England are some of the notable works.

Shakespeare   was   an   excellent   poet   and dramatist.

St. Paul School, established in London, was dedicated to the acquisition of this new knowledge.

5. Describe the effects of Industrial Revolution.

Effects of Industrial Revolution are as follows:

1. Due to the innumerable changes in industries, demand for machines grew.

2. Many changes took place in the economic and social fields too.

3. New factories were established.

4.   The  cost   of  production   came  down  and essential products were available at a low price.

5. Cottage industries could not compete with the giant factories and, thus, they collapsed.

6. The rich became richer and richer and the poor remained poor.

7. People had to migrate from villages to towns.

8. A capitalist class emerged in society.

9. Hostilities developed between the owners and the workers, and class conflict began.

Chapter - 9

Revolution And

Unification Of Nations 


i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. The 13 colonies established by England on the

Atlantic coast were called                           .

2. The representatives of the 13 colonies met in

1774 at             .

3. Declaration of America’s independence was on

4. The writer of Spirit of Laws was 

5. The party ‘Young Italy’ was formed by           _

6.  The  philosophy  of  ‘blood  and  steel’  was

advocated by 

Ans: (1) New English Colonies, (2) Philadelphia, (3) 4th July, (4) Montesquieu, (5) Joseph Mazzini, (6) Otto-van-Bismarck

ii. Answer the following questions.

1. Mention the reasons for American War of


Reasons for American War of Independence are-

(a) The rise of nationalism among the people of the colonies.

(b) The desire for independence among the colonies.

(c) The effects of the 'Seven Years' war. (d) The naval regulations.

(e) Influence of writers like Thomas Paine, John Adams, Samuel Adams,  John Edward Coke and Benjamin Franklin.

(f) The Quebec regulation. (g) The Townsend taxes and (h) The Boston tea party.

2.  Explain  the  significance  of  the  American war of independence.

The American war of independence acted as an inspiration for the French Revolution.

Many of the French who fought assisting the colonial army became leaders of the French revolution.

Many  of  the  Spanish  and  the  Portuguese colonies in America got inspired to become free and hence, revolted against their motherland.

•        The  new  nation  called  the  United  States  of

America was born.

3. How were economic factors responsible for the French revolution?

The economic factors-

•        France  was  an  agriculture-dominated  nation.

In spite of advances in agricultural practices, production lagged behind.

•        The yield from land was very low.


•        The farmers were the most affected.

Famines were frequent. As a result, there used to be revolts and riots for food.

Industries  were  under  the  control  of  trade unions.

Due  to  internal  strife  and  interference  from authorities,  the development  of these unions was sluggish.

•        Hence, productivity was low.

4. What was the role of Garibaldi in Italy’s


Garibaldi  is  one  of  the  architects  of  Italy's unification.

He was a soldier and fighter. He joined the Young Italy part and  assumed leadership of the revolution.

After that he constituted an army called Red Brigade and with the help of Sardinia, fought with Austria.

•        In 1860, he fought against the twin states of

Sicily using his Red Brigade.

By  conquering  the  same,  he  hastened  the national integration and pressed for democratic reforms.

5.  Who  was  the  architect  of  unification  of

Germany? Write a note on him.

Ottoman    Bismarek    was    the    architect    of

Germany's unification.

He was the chief minister of the King of Prussia, Williams.

He   had   gained   lot   of   popularity   as   an ambassador in various nations like Austria, France and Russia.

He had the knowledge of their strengths and weaknesses. His ambition was the unification of Germany; He wanted to convert Germany into Prussia.

•        He built a powerful army on the principle of

'Blood and Steel'.

•        His next aim was to drive out Austria from

German states association.

•        The   well-formed   German   armies   defeated

Austria in the year 1866 CE.

Bismarek realized that a war with France was inevitable to gain the 16 German states in the south attached to France.

He was successful in merging these states with Germany  when  Napoleon  was  defeated  by these states when he tried to capture them.

Thus  Bismarek   completed  the  unification  of





Our Constitution

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. The Law which governs the States is 

2.  The  meeting  of  new  Constituent  Assembly was held on                     .

3. The Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution was 

4. Our Constitution provides for a 

system of Government.

5. The State where the people enjoy sovereign power is called

6.   Our   Constitution   provides   for   

citizenship to its citizens.

7.  The  Right  for  Constitutional  Remedies  has been incorporated in Article 

8. The Directive Principles of State Policy are borrowed from                Constitution.

Ans: (1) Constitution, (2) 11th December, 1946 (3) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, (4) democratic, (5) Sovereign Republic, (6) single, (7) 32, (8) Irish

II. Answer the following questions.

1. Who was the President of the Constituent


The President of the New Constituent Assembly

was Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

2. When did the Constitution come into force?

The  Constitution  came  into  practice  from  26th

January 1950.

3. What does the Preamble to the Constitution contain?

The Preamble to the Constitution contains the fundamental policies and ideals of the constitution.

It is the sum of the structure, values, principles and goals of the constitution.

It is based on the aspirations and ideals of the people of India.

4. What do you mean by ‘Secularism’?

Secularism is a principle of separation of state

from religious dignitaries.


Means the citizens have the liberty to practise any religion they desire. No religion has been given the status of a National religion.

5.   Explain   the   salient   features   of   our


Some of the salient features of our Constitution

are as follows: Our Constitution

•     Written and Lengthy Constitution

•     Partially     Flexible     and     partially     Rigid


•     Parliamentary Form of Government

•     Republican System

•     Federal System

•     Fundamental Rights

•     Fundamental Duties

•     Directive Principles of State Policy

•     Independent and Centralized Judiciary System

•     Single Citizenship

•     Adult Franchise

•     Bicameral Legislature

•     Party System

6. Which are the Fundamental Rights incorporated in our Constitution?

Our Fundamental Rights are -

(1) Right to Liberty, (2) Right to Equality,

(3) Right against Exploitation, (4) Right to Religion,

(5) Right to Education and culture and

(6) Right to Constitutional remedy.

7. Make a List of the Fundamental Duties.

There are eleven fundamental duties. They are as


(1) To respect the Constitution, National flag and

National Anthem.

(2) To follow the noble ideals that inspired our

National Struggle for freedom.

(3) To protect the integrity of India.

(4) To defend the motherland when called upon to do so.

(5) To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India.

(6) To preserve our rich heritage.

(7) To protect and improve the natural environment

(8) To develop the scientific temper and the spirit of enquiry.

(9) To safeguard public property and leave the violence. 


(10) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activities.

(11) The father or the guardians should provide


7.   The   chairman   of   Union   Public   Service commission is appointed by 

8. The Supreme Court came into existence on 

an opportunity for education to their children from     

the age of 6 to 18 years. 

8. Which are the Directive Principles of State


The Directive Principles of State Policy are-

(1) To provide adequate means of livelihood to all citizens.

(2) To prevent the community wealth and resources from becoming the private property of a few people.

(3) To provide equal pay for equal work to both men and women, and to protect labour welfare.

(4) To provide public assistance to those who are old, sick, weak or helpless.

(5) To implement a Uniform Civil Code throughout the country.

(6) To provide opportunities for healthy development   and   preschool   education   of   all children below 6 years.

(7) To protect historical monuments and main tall places of historical interest.

(8) To separate the Executive and the Judiciary. (9)  To  protect  international  peace  and  respect

international law.

(10) To establish Gram Panchayats.

(11) To encourage rural and cottage industries. (12)  To  organize  and  develop  agriculture  and

animal husbandry on modem lines. (13) To ensure prohibition of liquor.

(14) To ensure development of farming based on scientific methods.


The Union Government

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. India is                       _

2. The Union legislature is called

3. The Speaker of Rajyasabha is            of India.

4. The minimum age to become the member of

Lokasabha is                   _

5. The commander-in-chief of all the three forces is 

6.  The  election  of  the  president  of  India  is


Ans: (1) Union of States, (2) Parliament, (3) Vice President, (4) 25 years, (5) President, (6)

54, 55 , (7) President, (8) 28th Jan 1950.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Write a note on the houses of parliament.

The  Parliament  consists  of  two  Houses.  The

Upper House is called Rajya Sabha and the Lower

House is called Lok Sabha.

Rajya Sabha :

The number of seats in the Rajya Sabha is 250, of

which 238 members are elected by the members of the State Assemblies and Union Territories. This House is also known as the House of Elders.

Term of Office: The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not dissolved like the Lok Sabha. But the term of the members is six years. One-third of its members retire on completion of six year term every second year.

Lok Sabha :

The  members  of  the  Lok  Sabha  are  elected

directly by the people, so, it is known as the House of People. The maximum number of seats is 545.

Term of Office: The Lok Sabha members are elected for a term of five years.

2.  Write  a  short  note  on  the  structure  of


The number of seats in the Rajya Sabha is 250, of  which  238  members  are  elected  by  the

members of the State Assemblies and Union


The remaining 12 members, who are experts from various fields like literature, art, science and   social   work   are   nominated   by   the President.

•        This  House  is  also  known  as  the  House  of


•        The  Vice-President  is  the  Chairman  of  the

Rajya Sabha.

The Deputy Chairman is chosen from among the members.

At least 10% of the members      (a minimum of 25 members) should be present during the

sessions of the Rajya Sabha. 

explained   in   the   article   

                         of the constitution.


and  article


•        The House should meet at least twice in a year. 


3.  What  are  the  qualifications  needed  to become a member of Lokasabha?

Qualifications of the Members :

1. Should be a citizen of India.

2. Must not be less than 25 years of age.

3. Should not hold any office of profit under the


4. Should not be a person of unsound mind.

5. Should not have been punished under law.

6. Should possess qualifications as specified by

Parliament from time to time.

4. Explain the election process for the post of the President.

The   President   is   elected   by   an   electoral college.

This college is consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament,

•        And  all  elected  members  of  the  legislative


•        The Cabinet has two kinds of responsibilities.

The    Minister    of    every    department    is responsible for the administration of his department.

He has individual responsibility for the success or failure of his department.

The      Union      Cabinet      has      collective responsibility to the Parliament with regard to the decisions and policies taken by it.

Therefore, the cabinet can be in power only as long as it enjoys the trust of the Parliament.

When it loses the trust, it has to be removed by a No-Confidence Motion.


State Government

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

assemblies of all the States.


1. India has

union territories.


states and   

5. List out the powers of the Prime Minister.

•        The   Prime   Minister   recommends   to   the

President the appointment of Ministers to the

Council of Ministers.


2.  The total  number of  members of Karnataka

Legislative Assembly is                         .

3. The Karnataka state Legislative Council has


He also allocates the various portfolios among the Ministers.


4. The Council of Minister has

                   power and it is the real executive.



•        He can also remove Ministers.

His  decision  is  final  in  the  allocation  of portfolios.

The Prime Minister is Head of Government so he is responsible for all actions of the Government.

•        He co-ordinates  the activities of the various


He takes greater interest in framing policies related   to   planning,   defence   and   foreign affairs.

•        He is the head of Union Cabinet.

All  discussions  of  issues  of  national  and international importance are discussed and decisions are taken under his chairmanship.

•        He is the link between the President and the


6.  Write  a  note  on  the  formation  of  union cabinet and its responsibilities.

The Union Cabinet is the real Executive and has Ministers in two hierarchies.

The  first  one  is  the  cabinet  level  and  the second is the Minister of State.

The maximum strength of the Union Cabinet is 15 of the total strength of the parliament.


5. The Governor is appointed by the 

6. The state Advocate General is appointed by

Ans: (1) 28, 7; (2) 225 (3) 75; (4) Chief Minister; administration (5)President; (6) Governor;

II. Answer the following questions-

1.  Explain  the  structure  of  the  Legislative


The  strength  of  the  Legislative  Assembly depends on the population of the State.

The   maximum   number   of   seats   of   any Legislative Assembly/Vidhana Sabha should not exceed 500 or be below 60.

The Governor can nominate one member from Anglo Indian community if he feels that they are not represented properly.

However, the number of seats in small States is less. Ex- In Mizoram and Goa, there are 40 members each.

The  Vidhana  Sabha  in  Karnataka  has  225 members. 224  members  are elected whereas one Anglo-Indian   is   nominated   by   the Governor. 


2. Which areas do the members of Legislative council represent?

The   members   of   the   Legislative   Council/

represent five fields.

1.   Some are elected from among the Members of the Legislative assembly,

2.   Local Bodies,

3.   Graduates' Constituencies,

4.   Teacher's Constituencies.

5.   The Governor nominates some Members who are experts in the field of art, literature, education,  social  service,  science  members who have completed their term retire.

3.  Write  a  note  on  the  qualifications  and tenure of the Governor.

The qualifications of the office of the Governor-

(l) Should be a citizen of India.

(2) Should not be less than 35 years of age.

(3) Should not hold any office of profit under the


(4) Should not be a Member of either Parliament or State Legislature. If he is a Member of either, he should resign from that post when he is appointed as the Governor.

The term of the office of the Govt. is 5 years.

4. Write a note on the Chief Minister.

•     The  Chief  Minister  is  the  Head  of  the  State


•  Success or failure of the State government depends on his personal charm.

•     He is the repository of all the power of the State.

•     He is the Head of the Council of Ministers, the Legislature, and the leader of the majority party in the government.

•     The Chief Minister should be a member of any one of the two Houses.

•     Even  those  who  are  not  Members  of  either

House can become the Chief Minister.

•     However,  he  has  to  become  the  Member  of anyone House within 6 months.


Judicial System

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1.  The  Supreme  Court  of  India  came  into

existence in                    .

2. The retirement age of the High Court judge is


3. The Judges are appointed by                     .

4. The head of Revenue Tax Board is 

5. The Lokadalats came into existence in the year

Ans:- (1) January 28, 1950 (2) 62 years (3) The

President (4) The Revenue Secretary (5) 1985

II. Answer the following questions-

1. Explain the functions of Supreme Court. Functions and powers of Supreme Court-

•  Original Powers : Resolving the disputes between the Union and the States, and between

the   States;   Safeguarding   the   Fundamental

Rights of citizens; Interpreting the provisions of the Constitution and passing on writs.

•     Appellate Powers : Citizens may file cases in the Supreme Court against the judgements given in the lower courts.

•     Advisory Powers : The Supreme Court may advise the President when he seeks its opinion on important public issues. The President may consult the Supreme Court for advice.

•     The  Supreme  Court  serves  as  a  Court  of


•     Chief Advisor to the Centre and States, and

•     has the power to issue special writs.

2. Write a note on functions of High courts. Functions of the High Courts are-

1.  The  original  power  to  resolve  civil  and

criminal  cases;  Naval,  Marital  and  contempt  of court cases.

2.  To  admit  appeals  against  the  judgements passed by the subordinate courts in civil and criminal cases.

3. To direct transfer of cases from the lower courts to the High Court; to supervise the working of the subordinate courts; to admit writ petitions to safeguard the Fundamental Rights and other legal rights   of   citizens;   to   appoint   the   staff   and regulating them.

3.  Name  the  subordinates  courts  under  the civil courts.

Subordinate courts under the District Courts are -

1. Court of Subordinate Judges

2. Court of Additional Subordinate Judges

3. Court of Munciffs

4. Court of Additional Munciffs

4. Write a note on Criminal courts.

o   Criminal  courts  came  into  existence  on  1

April, 1974. 


o They  are  also  known  as  District  Magistrate courts.

o   They function under the High Court.

o   The highest criminal court at the district level

is the Sessions court.

o The District Judge performs the function of a judge of this court too.

o The   court   takes   up   crimes   like   murder, robbery, dacoits etc.

o It has the powers to issue death sentences and also life imprisonment sentences.

Other criminal courts-

•     Chief   Magistrate   Court:   This   court   can impose seven years punishment.

•     First  Grade  Magistrate  Court:  This  court can impose punishment upto 3 years or fine upto Rs.5000/-, or impose both. Moreover, it can admit appeals against judgments from lower magisterial courts.

•     Second Grade Magistrate Court: This court has the power to impose punishment upto 2 years or a fine of Rs.1000/- or both.

•     Third Grade Magistrate Court:

5. Write a note on Revenue courts.

Revenue courts take up cases related to land tax,

land  records  etc.  Revenue  Courts  comprise  the following courts:

•     Tahasildar Court/ Taluk Magistrate Court : The Tahasildar Court is the lowest court

•     District Subdivisional Officer’s Court: This court  takes  up  appeals  against  the decisions and judgments of Tahsildar courts.

•  District   Revenue   Court   or   District Magistrate Court: This court takes up appeals against the judgments given by the Tahsildar court or the District Subdivisional Officer’s court. The Deputy Commissioner is its judge.

•     Commissioner’s Court: This court takes up appeals against the judgments of the district magistrate courts. The Divisional Officer is its judge.

•   Revenue Board: This is the highest court dealing with Revenue cases.

6. What are reasons behind the establishment of

Lok Adalat court?

In   India,   the   legal   procedure   is   time- consuming and expensive.

So government want this Lok Adalat function faster and are less expensive.

This  gives  importance  to  compromising  of cases.



Indian Election System

I Fill up the blanks:

1. The Electoral roll is revised                      year.

2. The Public Election Campaign comes to end before                  hours to Election Day.

3. The recognition to political parties is accorded by                     .

4. The Independence of Journalism is protected by                     .

Ans:- (1) every year (2) 48 (3) The Election

Commission (4) ‘Press Council of India’

II Answer the following questions briefly:

1. Write a note on ‘Electoral Roll’.

The voters list is the list which contains the names and certain other details of the voters. It

is also called the Electoral Roll.

•        The Electoral Roll is prepared by the Election

Commission much before the elections.

Electoral  Roll  is  revised  every  year.  At  the time of revision the names of those who have attained the age of 18  are included  and  the names of the dead are deleted.

The Electoral Roll helps the polling officials to identify the voters.

The Electoral Photo Identity Cards (EPIC) are issued to all the eligible voters by the Election Commission to prevent impersonation.

EPIC  is  also  used  as  a  proof  for  general identification.

2.  Prove  that  “Political  Parties  are  the  link between elected representatives and people”.

•  Political  parties  are  necessary  in  the democratic set up.

• Political  parties are  the link between representatives, government and the people.

•     They play a major role in formulating policies for social and economic progress.

•     Political parties become a training ground to develop leadership qualities.

3. Write a note on Coalition Governments.

•     Many  a  time  no  party  gets  the  required majority to form the government. Such a situation is called ‘Hung Parliament’. In such a

situation  some  of  the  political  parties  join together and make alliances to get the required 


majority   to   form   the   government.   Such

alliance is called ‘Post-poll alliance’.

•     At certain times two or more than two parties join together and make alliance before the elections. This type of alliance is called ‘Pre- poll alliance’.

•   Pre-poll or Post-poll alliance helps political parties to join together to form the government when there is a hung parliament or assembly.

•  Such a government formed with the co- operation of different political parties is called

‘Coalition Government’.

•     The political parties of Coalition Government share power and responsibility by joining Council of Ministers.


Defence Of The Nation

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. The main objective of our defence policy is

protecting                 .

2. The Commander-in-Chief of our three Armed

Forces is              .

3. The Chief of the Army is called 

4. The headquarters of the Defence Ministry is in


5. The Hindustan Ship-building yard is at 

6. The border security force training centre is in

7. The Indian Red Cross Society established in

Ans:-  1)  The  sovereignty  2)  President, 3)

General,   4)   Delhi,   5)   Vishakhapatnam, 6)

Yelahanka in Bangalore 7) 1920

II. Answer the following questions-

1.  What  is  the  Naval  Base  near  Karwar known as?

The Naval Base near Karwar known as Sea bird.

2. Which are the four divisions of our Defence


The four divisions are as follows –

(1) Defence Section

(2) Defence production Section,

(3) Defence Researeh and Development Section

(4) Retired Defence Personal Welfare Section.

3. Explain the structure of the Indian Army.


•     The  headquarters  of  the  India  Army  is  in


•     Its head is known as the Commander-in-Chief.

He has    a    Deputy    Commander-in-Chief. General, Major General, Brigadier,

•     Military Secretary and a Military Engineer to assist him in his work.

•     The army consists of Infantry, Cavalry, Tank Regiment called the Armed Corps and the Gunners' Regiment.

•     There is a Supply and engineering branch too.

• The Army has been divided into seven commands for administrative convenience.

•     Each  command  is  under  the  charge  of  a general officer (commander- in-chief) of the rank of a Lt. General.

4. Which are the Commands of the Army?

There are seven Commands of the Army.

(i)   Western   Command   at   Chandimandir   in


(ii) Eastern Command at Kolkata in West Bengal

(iii)    Northern    Command    at    Udhampur    in


(iv) Southern Command at Pune in Maharashtra. (v)  Central   Command   at   Lucknow   in   Uttar


(vi)  Training  Command  at  Mhow  in  Madhya


(vii)   North-Western   Command   at   Jaipur   in


5.  Explain  the  functions  of  the  Indian  Air


•     The Indian Air Force works very effectively and courageously both during war times and

peace times.

•     It has succeeded in ensuring safety, security and stability.

•     The headquarters of the Air Force is in New


•     It    is    organized    into    five    Operational

Commands and two Functional Commands.

6.  What  are  the  qualifications  required  for recruitment to the Army?

Those who desire to work in the Armed forces

•     Should   be   service-oriented,   patriotic,   and ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of the country and also be familiar with the multi- cultural fabric of the nation.

•     However  there  are  certain  conditions  with regard to physical requirements, mental health, 


general  education  and  technical  knowledge that have to be met.

•     When recruitments are made to the lower posts of the army, they are made according to the percentage of recruitable male population (RMP) of the State and the Union Territories.

•     Recruitment  of  women  to  the  three  armed forces takes place through the women Special Entry Scheme (WSES).

7. What are the aims of N.C.C.? What are its advantages?

The aims of National Cadet Corps are-

1. To develop among the students a sense of discipline,

2.   Leadership qualities,

3.   Friendliness and service-mindedness.

4.   It is a body of disciplined and trained youth force which comes to the rescue of the nation during emergencies.

They given various concessions are as follows:

(i) Those who have received N.C.C. training can join the armed forces easily.

(ii)  Cadets  who  have  earned  distinction  during training are given seats in professional college.

(iii)   Cadets   are   given   training   in   handling weapons.

(iv) During training, cadets go on adventures like hiking,  trekking,  gliding,  scaling  or mountaineering, sailing etc.

(v) Students who have received N.C.C. training can secure admission in any defence school.

8. Explain the organization of the Indian Red

Cross Society.

The    Indian    Red    Cross    Society    is    a humanitarian voluntary  organization  and  has

nearly  700   branches   as   State   and   Union


•        Its headquarters are in Delhi.

•        The Indian President is its Chairman.

•        A  Secretary  General  is  its  Administrative


It has an administrative body consisting of 19 members and a Secretary.

The President nominates 6 members whereas the remaining 12  members are elected from the State and Union Territories.

The   Red   Cross   society   renders   valuable service to people during natural calamities and other emergencies.



National Integration

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1.  India  is  a  secular  country and  so  does  not

oppose any                     _.

2. Communalism is a major obstacle to 

3. Republic Day is a                                festival.

4. India has considered                        languages as National languages.

5. Our National Animal is 

Ans: (1) religion, (2) national integration, (3)

national, (4) 22, (5) Tiger

II. Answer the following questions-

1. What is ‘Nationalism’?

Nationalism is the strong belief that a people who

share a common language, law, uniform administation, history and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.

2.    What    do    you    mean    by    ‘National


National Integration refers to that situation where

all the people of that  country feel  they are one although there are differences with regard to race, religion, culture and language.

3. Which are the factors that lead to unity in diversity?

The factors that lead to unity in diversity are

•        geographical unity,

•        political unity,

•        religious unity,

•        linguistic unity,

•        Cultural unity.

Thus   amidst   diversity  there  is   unity  among

Indians. The feeling of 'We are all one' is deep- rooted in the mind of every Indian.

4.   Which   are   the   factors   that   promote

National Integration?

The factors promoting national integration are

•        Secularism,

•        Democracy,

•        national festivals,

•        national symbols and

Interdependence  of  the  Central  Government and State Government on one another.

5. What are obstacle to Nationa Itegration? 


(i) When people belonging to different castes and religion form their own associations and indulge in activities   which   encourage   their   castes   and religion, national integration is threatened.

(ii) The variety of languages in India is leading to linguistic obsession and parochialism.

(iii)  The  presence  of  innumerable  castes  and caste-based  associations  is  leading  to communalism.

(iv) Border disputes, river water disputes and language disputes between states are also problematic factors for national integration.

(v)  The  other  actors   like  terrorism, untouchability, lack of political will, negligence of

people are also obstacles to national integration.

6. What are your suggestions to overcome obstacles that affect National Unity?

Some of the suggestions (problems) hindering the

National integration are as follows:

People of one religion or caste respect those belonging to  others,  support  them  and celebrate all festivals together that national integration can be fostered.

Better    vocational    education    should    be provided

Iimplement measures to check the members of school dropouts.

In these ways, we, the responsible citizens of India, should respect one another, and together enjoy a sense of solidarity.

Only then will there be a true sense of unity in the country.


Chapter - 1


i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1.  The  word  family  is  derived  from  the  Latin


2. The cell of the society is                                 .

3.  If the father is the head of the  family, that family is called as

4.   Among   the   Nayars   of   Kerala   

family is found.

Ans: (1) famulus; (2) family; (3) patriarchal; (4) Matriarchal.


ii. Answer the following.

1. How does the family become a social unit?

Family is a unit of society. It is like a living cell.

The community develops from a family, leading to the creation of a nation.

2. Mention the types of family.

Families   are   classified   based   on   different


(A) Based on authority, a family can be classified as Patriarchal and Matriarchal.

(B)  Based  on  marriage,  it  can  be classified  as

Monogamy, Bigamy and Polygamy.

(C)  Based   on   size,   it   can   be   classified   as

Undivided and Divided.

3. What is a joint family?

The family which has people of more than two

generations consisting of parents, their children, grandchildren  and  great  grandchildren  is  called joint family.

The group of people living under one roof, eating food prepared in one kitchen, having equal rights to the property, engaging in same type of worship and having specific blood relatives is called joint family.

4. What is a nuclear family?

A   family   having   husband,   wife   and   their

unmarried  children  is  called  nuclear  or  modem family.

5. What are the characteristics of a family?

•     Family is universal- It is a social system seen in all ages and all countries.

•     It is the basic unit for all social activities.

• Continuous   responsibility   and   social accountability.

•     Bringing up and Nurturing.

• Teaches social behaviour- Right from childhood, the members of the family not only realize their social responsibilities but also understand the need for cooperation.

•  It  instructs  the  tradition-  The  social traditions, morality and behaviour are all controlled by the family.

6.  Discuss  the  role  of  family  in  individual’s

social development stages.

Every activities of social institutions start from the family. 


The  political,  economical,  educational  and several  other  activities  of  the  society  begin from the family.

•        A child learns its mother tongue in the family.

It understands the social life around it through the mastered mother tongue.

Children  develop  as  per  the  social  situation around the family.

The family teaches the children about the ways of interacting with elders and the peer group.

This means, the social behaviour, its demands and taboos, indirectly control the children.

The family teaches behaviours like friendship, freedom and security during childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age.

7. Explain the characteristics of a joint family. Characteristics of Joint Family:

1) Large in size

2) Co-ordination and co-operation:

3) They reside together under the same roof and use same kitchen.

4)  Members  of  the  joint  family believe  in  the same religion and practice.

5) Self-sufficient unit.

6) The senior members of the joint family are entrusted with the authority and responsibility.

8.  What  are  the  reasons  for  the  increase  of nuclear families in the present days?

Main reasons for the increase of nuclear families

in the present days are-

Individuality,        focus        on        individual achievement, concept of individual happiness,

change in value system with regard to rights of property,

progress    in    the    areas    of    science    and technology,

•        rapid urbanization,

•        democratic values and concept of equality and

many other things have contributed to the rise of nuclear families.

Chapter - 2


i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1.  The  changing  process  of  human  being  as  a

social being is called              .

2. Mother is the first                of a child.

3. The important agency of socialization is 

4. Radio is an agency of 


Ans: (1) socialization (2) teacher (3) family (4)


ii. Anser the following questions:

1. Explain the role of school in the process of socialization.

In schools the child is not only influenced by the teachers but also by its friends and classmates.

The    social    behaviour,    knowledge    and experience  of  the  child  are  moulded  by the education.

Subconscious capacity of the children is also developed.

School will extend his/her life and make them ready for social life.

Various positive aspects that find expression in teachers like good behaviours, equality and good will get reflected in the children as well.

This     enables     children     develop     love, cooperation,  tolerance,  co-living,  mutual respect and other various values in their life.

2. What are the values learned by a child from the family members?

The child learns the first lesson of life values such as    love,    concern,    faith,    patience, cooperation, coordination etc., at home.

The   appreciation   from   the   family   always encourages the activities of the child.

•        Children learn obedient nature in family.

3.  Explain  the  importance  of  socialization process.

1. Converts human being into social being.

2. Provides the scope of adopting, imitating and learning of many skills.

3. Develops the social relationship and provide commitment and support to the social system.

4. Helps the development of personality.

5. Helps the continuity of tradition.

4.    Mention    what    does    the    socialization indicates.

Socialization indicates basically human being is a social animal.

Child starts to learn the social behaviour form its childhood.

The process of learning social behaviour and the process of becoming social being is called socialization. 


The  moment  the  child  gets  the  power  of thinking and talking, it will make contact with the people living in the society.

It tries to communicate non-verbally and tries to imitate the others.

5.   Explain   the   role   of   mass   media   in socialization process.

Human   beings   are   deeply   influenced   by advertisements,    radio     programs,    stories,

novels, Television serials, dance drama, music, posters and important statements by popular persons.

News,  quiz,  introductory  talks,  discussion, programs introducing various important places and others help the viewers to develop good personality.

Similarly   programs   of   academic   interest facilitate  better  social  behaviour  among people.

6.   Explain   the   role   of   neighbourhood   in socialization process.

The  people  of  neighbourhood  live  like  the members of the same family by sharing their

happiness and sorrows.

Neighbourhood  people  help  each  other  in festival, fair, marriage, religious rituals and other programmes.

Neighbourhood relationship is much stronger in rural     communities     than     in     urban communities.

7. What is socialization?

The process of learning social behaviour and the

process   of   becoming   social   being   is   called socialization.

Chapter - 3

Social Change

i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. Change is the Law of 

2. School is a                      for cooperative life.

3. The ‘Theory of Evolution’ was presented by 

Ans: (1) nature (2) medium (3) Darwin.

ii. Answer the following questions :

1. What is social change?

Social    change    can    be    defined    as    the

transformation that takes place in the lifestyle of common people.


2. What is cooperation?

Cooperation means giving and taking in society

for fulfil their basic needs.

Working together to achieve a common goal is called cooperation.

3. What are the basic elements of coexistence?

Secular, socialist and democratic concepts are the important elements of coexistence.

All      should      have     equal      opportunity, independent, social, economical, political and justifiable life.

Equality with reference to caste, religion, race, gender, region and other aspects.

It says no one should be discriminated in any name.

4.   Mention   the   characteristics   of   social changes.

1. Social change is a continuous process.

2. Social change is universal.

3. Social change varies in its form and speed.

4. The  chain  of  social  process  creates  social change.

5. Is the social change necessary?

Yes.   In   order   to   modifications   of   social process and socio-cultural development social

change is necessary.

The  Mobility  found   in   human  society  is basically due to social change.

6. Why the competition increases day-by-day?

The  Globalised  economy  is  pushing  people  to

earn more at the cost of health, in the name of competition.  This  has  changed  the  attitude  of human life totally.

Chapter - 4


i. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

1. Nomadism is called as a way of                       .

2.   The   main   pillar   of   Indian   society   is


3. The tribes of North East Zone are                     .

Ans:- (1) life (2) rural (3) Mongolian tribe.

ii. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a Tribe?

A group of clans with  kinship is called Tribe.

Tribe is the group which live in a particular geographic area and have their own social, political and cultural administration. 


2. What is a village?

The area consisting of the families who mainly

depend on agriculture and agriculture based occupations for their livelihood is called village.

3. Define the concept of a city.

A place that has a population of more than five

thousand and a density of one thousand people per square kilometre and where more than 75% population  is  engaged  in  non-agriculture production, then it is called as city.

4. Explain the characteristics of tribal community.

1. Simple and self-content.

2. Worship of nature.

3. Loyal to the community and unity.

4. Equality and independence to women.

5. Endogamous marriages.

6. Unique and different mother tongue.

7. Living in natural environment.

8. Economic system based on hunting and gathering of minor forest produces  and sporadic agriculture.

5. Explain the division of tribals in India according to the geographical locality.

The three important geographical zones in India

according to the geographical locality are:

1) North and North-east Zone:

2) Central Zone:

3) South zone.

6. Explain the types of rural community.

Types of village

1. Centralized villages.

2. Independent households and farms villages.

3. Scattered group villages.

4. Village of line houses.

5. Circle shaped villages.

6. Square shaped villages.

7. Converged road villages or market villages.

7. List the features of a rural community.

The features of a rural community as follows:

1. Small in size.

2. Agriculture and agriculture related economy.

3. Community life.

4. Democratic ideals.

5. Lack of civic infrastructure.



Chapter - 1

OUR State – Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. We celebrate Kannada Rajyotsava on 

2.  The  year  in  which  the  State  was  named  as

Karnataka is            .

3. The State to the East of Karnataka is

4. The largest district in Karnataka is 

5. The total area of Karnataka is             sq.kms.

6. The shape of Karnataka resembles a 

Ans:- (1) 1st  November 1956 (2) 1973 (3) Andhra Pradesh (4) Belagavi (5) 1,91,791 (6) Cashewnut

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Give the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of Karnataka.

Karnataka extends from 11°-31' north to 18°-45'

North latitude and 74°-12' east to 78°-40' East longitude.

2. Name karnataka’s neighbouring states.

The sates of Maharashtra In the north, Andhra

Pradesh in the east Tamil Nadu in the south and south-east, Kerala in the south-west,  Goa in the north-west. these are the neighbouring states of Karnataka.

3. Which are the four administrative divisions of Karnataka?

Four administrative divisions of Karnataka are :

Bengaluru, Mysuru, Belagavi and Kalaburagi

4.   Explain   the   geographical   location   of

Karnataka in India.

Karnataka  is  situated  in  the  Southern  part  of

India, in the Western Central area of the peninsular region.

Chapter – 2

Physiographic Divisions

Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. Island is located near Malpe is                   .

2. Sahyadris is the name given to                Ghats in Karnataka.

3. Agumbe Ghat links                and   


4. The Kashmir of Karnataka is                     .

Ans- (1) St. Mary (Coconut island) (2) Western

Ghat (3) Shimoga, Udupi (4) Kodagu.

II. Answer the following questions :

1. Mention the important physical divisions of


1. The Coastal Plain

2. The Malnad region and

3. The Maidan region.

2. Write a note on the relief features of Malnad region.

•        The  Western  Ghats  in  our  state  are  called

Malnad or the land of hills.

Malnad  runs  parallel  to  the  coastline  from north to south.

They have steep slopes like terrace to the west and  gentle  slope  to  the  east  hence  they are called Ghats.

They are 650 kms in length and 50-76 kms in width.

The height ranges from 900 to 1000 meters from sea level.

3.  Give  an  account  on  the  coastal  plains  of


•        The Karnataka coastal plain lies between the

Arabian Sea and Malnad.

The coastline extend-320 kms. Its width varies from 12 to 64 kms.

It is broad in the south and goes on becoming narrow with steep slopes towards north.

Its height is more than 200 meters above sea level. It is called the Canara or the Karnataka Coastline'.

Many  fast  flowing  rivers  rush  through  this coastline formed by sea erosion. They lead to creation of estuaries.

•        There  are  many  ports  along  the  coastline.

Among them, the 'New Mangalore is the major one.

Many  beautiful  beaches  along  the  sea-coast attract tourists here are some small islands located near the coast. Fishing is the main occupation of the coastal people.

4. Name the main hills of Southern maidan.

•        There are many hills in the Southern Maidan.

Some of them are- Chitradurga hills, Narayana durga hills, Savandurga and Shivas anga in Bangalore rural district.


Madhugiri hill in Tumkur district is the biggest monolithic hill in Asia.

Nandi    hill    station,    chennakeshwara    hill, Kavaledurga and Skandagiri hills in Mandya district, Biligirirangana hill, Malemadeshwara hill, Himarad gopalswamy hills of Chamrajnagar district, Chamundi hill Mysore.

5. Mention the mountain passes in the Western


The mountain passes in Western Ghats are-

(i)   Charmudi   Ghat   which   links   Mangalore


(ii) Shiradi Ghat -it links Hassan -Sakleshpur and


(iii) Agumbe Ghat- it links Shimoga and Udupi. (iv) Hulikal Ghat-it links Shimoga and Kundapur.

III. Match the following :

A                                 B

1. Jogfalls                 a. Mangaluru

2. Om beach             b. Northern maidan

3. Nandi hill station c. Sharavati river

4. Monolith hill        d. Gokarna

5. Land of sunshine  e. Chikballapur

f. Madhugiri Hill

Ans. (1) - c (2) - d (3) - e (4 )- f (5) - (b)

Chapter - 3

Climate, Soil, Natural Vegetation

And Animals Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words-

1.  The  months  of                ,                ,   

form Summer season.

2. The season with heavy rainfall is 

3.  Extensively  soil  found  in  North  Karnataka is

4. The area that has evergreen forests is 

5.  The  district  that  has  largest  forest  area  in

Karnataka is                   _.

Ans. (1) March, April, May; (2) rainy season; (3) Black soil (4) receiving more than 250 cms rainfall; (5) Uttar Kannada

II. Match the following :

A                                         B

1) Adichunchanagiri a) Bird Santuary

2) Mandagadde        b) National forest

3) Nagarahole          c) Deciduous forest

4) Sandalhood tree   d) Peacock Sanctuary e) Red soil 


III. Answer the following questions :

1. Name the four seasons of Karnataka.

(1) Summer season - March to May

(2) Rainy season - June to September

(3) Retreating Monsoons - October - November

(4) Winter season - December to February

2.   Write   a   note   on   the   rainy   season   in


The rainy season in Karnataka is also called the season of South- West Monsoon winds.

The Western Ghats check the moisture laden winds blowing from the Arabian Sea, resulting in heavy rain.

As we move eastward, amount of rainfall gets reduced. As a result, the eastern maidan is a rain-shadow area.

Agumbe is an area of heavy rainfall. Hence it is called 'Cheerapunji of South India'.

•        There   is   cloudy   atmosphere   throughout.


The wild animals in our forests are tigers, lion, cheetah, wild buffalo, elephant, leopards, boars, bisons, stags, deer, bears, porcupines etc.

A variety of snakes and colourful birds can also be seen in the forests of Karnataka.

Chapter - 4

Water Resources Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. The Cauvery River takes its birth at 

of Kodagu district.

2.  The  famous  Jog  Falls  is  produced  by  the river.

3.   The   Krishnarajasagar   dam   is   in   


4.   The   first   hydro-electric   power   generating station in Karnataka is

5. The Almatti dam has been constructed across 

During this season, Karnataka receives about                         River.

80% of its rainfall. 

3. Mention the types of soils in Karnataka.

The types of soils found in Karnataka are

1) Red soil,

2) Black soil

3) Laterite Soil and

4) Coastal Alluvial Soil.

4.  Name  the  types  of  natural  vegetation  of


The natural vegetation of Karnataka are-

1) Evergreen forests,

2) Deciduous forests,

3) Mixed forests and

4) Temperate Grasslands and shrubs.

5. Why is Karnataka known as ‘the Land of


•        Sandalwood   is   a   special   tree   grown   in

Karnataka forests.

Perfume, objects with intricate carving, soap and medicines are manufactured from sandalwood.

They are popular all over the world, and hence are not only supplied to all parts of the country but also exported to foreign countries.

This is the reason Karnataka is known as 'the land of sandalwood'.

6. Name the wild animals in our forests.


Ans:   (l)   Talacauvery;   (2)   Sharavathi;   (3) Mysore; (4) Shivanasamudra; (5) Krishna

II. Answer the following questions :

1. Name the important rivers of Karnataka.

(l) East flowing- The Krishna, the Cauvery, the

Pennar and the Palar.

(2)   West   flowing   rivers-   Sharavathi,   Kali, Gangavali, Netravathi, Varahi, Aghanashini etc.

2. Write a short note on river Krishna.

•        River Krishna is an East flowing river.

•        It is the second important river of South India.

•        It  takes  birth  at  Mahabaleshwar  and  flows

1392 kms towards the east to join the Bay of


•        But   it   flows   only   for   480   km   through


The       Bhima,        Koyna,        Tungabhadra, Ghataprabha  and  Malaprabha  are  its tributaries.

Irrigation and hydro-electric power generation have benefitted to the Northern Karnataka.

3. What are the tributaries of Cauvery river.

Tributaries of Cauvery River are- the Hemavathi,

Harangi, Lokapavani, Arkavathi, Shimsha, Lakshmanatirtha,  Kapila,  Suvarnavati  and Bhavani. 


4. Name the different sources of irrigation in



3.  Sorghum  vulgare  is  the  scientific  name  of


The different sources of Karnataka are


4.   The   


district  is  the  largest 

1.   wells,

2.   canals and

3.   tanks.

5.  Mention  the  main  hydro-electric  power stations of our state.

The  main  hydro-electric  power  stations  of  our

state are - Shivanasarnudra, Shimsha (Cauvery river), Sharavathi, Linganamakhi, Gerusoppa and Mahatma Gandhi hydro power station (Sharavathi river), Supa, Nagajhari, Kadra and Kodasalh (Kali river), Varahi and mari Kanive (Varahi river), Bhadra, Tungabhadra,  Ghataprabha and  Alamatti (Knshna fiver) projects.

6. Write a brief note on river water disputes.

Many rivers in India flow through more than one  state.  This  has  given  rise  to  disputes

regarding the use of river water.

The Cauvery water dispute and  the  Krishna water disputes in Karnataka are of this kind.

The  catchment  area  of  the  river  Cauvery is spread in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry.

The  river  water  dispute  between  Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is more than a century old, yet it is a burning issue even today.

The river Krishna too flows through different states, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra pradesh. This has given rise to river water dispute.

IV. Match the following:

A                     B

1. Linganamakki dam a.Hydro-electric project

2. Gaganachukki, Bharachukki             b. River

3. Vani Vilas Sagar  c. Kali river

4. Nagajhari             d. Cauvery river

5. Pennar                  e. Sharavathi f. Marikanive

Ans. 1 - (e); 2 - (d); 3 - (f); 4 - (a); 5 - (b).

Chapter – 5

Land Resources Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

1. Utilising land for different purposes is called


2.  The  largest  net  area  sown  is  in   



producer of sugarcane in Karnataka.

5. Tobacco contains an intoxicating substance called                       .

Ans.  (1) utilization  of land  (2) Gulbarga  (3) Jowar (4) Mandya (5) Nicotine

II. Answer the following questions :

1. Name the different types of land utilization in Karnataka.

(i) Net sown area, (ii) Forest area, (iii) Land not

available  for  cultivation,  (iv)  Other  uncultivated land, (v) Fallow land.

2.   Write   a   note   on   the   importance   of agriculture in Karnataka.

(i) Agriculture provides employment to people.

(ii) Provides food for the people and raw material to industries.

(iii) It is a source of revenue to the state, and earns foreign exchange.

(iv) Agriculture helps in the development of tertiary occupations like transport, banking, insurance etc.

(v) It plays an important role in the political and social system of the state.

(vi) It is the main source of livelihood for many. (vii) It is the backbone of our state’s economy.

Economic progress depends on agriculture.

3. What is  meant by  ‘irrigation’? Name the

main crops grown under irrigation.

Crops  grown  by  irrigation  sources  of  canals,

tanks or wells is called "irrigation'.

Paddy and sugarcane are the main crops grown under this fanning.

4. Explain the main characteristics of ‘mixed farming’?

In  addition  to  growing  crops,  dairy  farming,

silkworm rearing, sheep rearing, poultry, bee- keeping, fishery etc. are taken up in the same land. This called mixed farming.

5. Mention the uses of ragi.

•     Ragi   is   a   food   grain   with   innumerable nutrients.

•     Ragi balls, porridge, sprouted flour, malt, dosa etc. are made from ragi.

•     In  Karnataka  it  is  the  third  most  important food grain after paddy and jowar. 


•     It is available at fewer prices.

•     The stalks of the ragi plant are used as fodder for cattle.

•     Ragi can be preserved for many months.

III. Match the following :


4. Name the places in Karnataka where iron ore is available.

Iron ore is mainly distributed in the districts of

BeIlary, Chikmaglur, Bagalkot, Chitradurga, Tumkur, Shimoga, Dakshina kannada, Uttar Kannada and Gadag. Bellary has rich deposits and 


Ans:- I - (b); 2 - (d); 3 - (f); 4 - (c); 5 - (a)

Chapter – 6

Mineral Resources

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words-

1.   Kudremukh   in   Karnataka   is   noted   for


2. The best-quality iron ore is                             .

3. Sandur in Ballari district has                  mines.

4. The metal that is produced from bauxite ore is


5. The deepest gold mine is                           .

Ans- (1) Iron  (2)  magnetite (3) Iron  ore  (4)

aluminium (5) Champion Reef

II. Answer the following questions:

1.  Why  Karnataka  is  called  the  ‘Land  of


Karnataka  occupies  the  first  position  in  the production of gold in India.

•        It produces 80 of the total gold in India.

Hence Karnataka is known as the Land of Gold. Gold is being produced in Karnataka from ancient times.

2. Which are the important minerals available in Karnataka?

Karnataka has rich and varied mineral resources.



Belgaum is the leading district in the production

of bauxite.

6.    Name   the   important   gold    mines    of


The important gold mines of Karnataka are Hatti

in Raichur district is the biggest gold mine in India. Lot of gold is being produced here. It is produced in Bellara in Tumkur district and Ajjanahalli near Shira. Other places with gold deposits are Mulgund and Kappatagudda in Gadag district, Kempinakote in Hassan District etc.

III. Match the following:

A                                         B

1. Supa                     a. Manganese

2. Hatti                     b. Bauxite

3. Kumsi                  c. Limestone

4. Khanapur d. Irone ore

e. Gold mine

Ans. 1-(a); 2 (e); 3 (d); 4 - (b).

Chapter – 7


I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words-

1.  Villages  and  towns  are  linked  by   


2. There are                national highways passing through Karnataka.

3. The city railway system of Bengaluru is called 

Among  them,   iron   ore,   gold,   manganese,   lime       

stone, copper, bauxite, chromite’s, mica, asbestos and granite are important.

3. Which is the ore used as an alloy?

Manganese is used as an alloy in the manufacture

of steel to increase its Hardness.


4.  The  port  that  is  called  the  ‘Gateway  of

Karnataka’ is 

5. The Coastal Railway of Karnataka is called 

Ans. (1) Road; (2) 14; (3) Namma Metro Rail; (4) Mangalore; (5) Konkan.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the importance of road transport. 


•     A  large  number  of  people  of  rural  areas  in

Karnataka use this road transport.

•     This links the villages and towns.

•     Roads can be constructed easily, at low cost.

•     People and goods can be transported to every corner of the state.

•     Development of roads determines the progress

of the state’s agriculture, industry, mining and


Chapter – 8

Industries Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. The first Iron and Steel Industry of Karnataka

was established at                       .

2. The Manchester of Karnataka is 

3. The by-products of sugar are                         . 



4. Ammasandra has

5. Silicon Valley is the name of




2.   Name   the   different   types   of   roads   in


Different types of roads are-

1. National highways,

2. State highways,

3. District roads and

4. Village roads.

3. List the important rail routes of Karnataka.

• In Karnataka state, there is no uniform distribution of railway lines in all the districts.

•   Bangalore, Bellary, Belgaum, Hassan, Uttar Kannada, Chitradurga, Udupi, Ramnagar and Dakshina Kannada districts have an average of

150 to 200 km long railway.

•     Konkan  railway  route  of  west  coast  links

Mangalore to Mumbai.

Konkan Railways: This is the most important railway route of West Coast. It links Mangaluru and Mumbai.

4. What are the advantages of air transport?

•     Air transport is the fastest mode of transport.

•     It helps to carry people, mail and lightweight goods to distant places in the shortest time.

•     Air transport is of great help during natural calamities, wars and other emergencies.

5. Name the ports of Karnataka.

Mangaluru  port,  Old  Mangaluru  Port,  Malpe,

Hangarakatte,   Kundapura,   Padubidri,   Bhatkal, Honnavara, Tadri, Belekeri and Karwar.

III. Match the following:

A                                B

1. Golden Quadrilateral       a. Port

2. Broad gauge                     b. Bengaluru

3. H.A.L.                              c. NH-4

4. Belekeri                            d. Airport

5. Namma Metro                  e. Railways

f. Waterways

Ans:- 1-(C), 2 - (e); 3 - (d); 4 - (a); 5 - (b).


Ans-   (1)   Bhadravathi   (2)   Davanagere   (3) Bagasse and molasses (4) Cement (5) Bangalore

II. Answer the following:

1. Write a note on the industrial development in Karnataka.

•     After  1902  Rice  mills,  tile  factories,  beedis and cigarettes, iron and brass foundries were


•     After 1923, many modern manufacturing units like iron and steel, soap factories, cotton and silk mills, paper, cement, paint, sugar, sandal oil industries etc were started.

•     After  independence,  the  industrial  policy  of the Central   Government   enabled   further industrial development in the state.

• As a result, many more factories were established, for instance; manufacture of aeroplanes, engineering, machine tools, (HMT, BEL, BHEL), watches, iron and steel, aluminium, information technology, electronic bio-technology industry etc.

2.  Explain  the  iron  and  steel  industry  of


•     Sir M. Visveswaraiah’s foresight enabled an

Iron  and   Steel  industry  to   be  set  up   at

Bhadravathi in Shivamogga district in 1923.

•     So that the rich and abundant iron ore deposits in the Bababudangiri hills could be utilized.

•     This factory was named as Mysuru Iron and

Steel Industries Limited (MSIL).

•     Later on, it was handed over to Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) in 1989.

•     Today it is known as Visveswaraiah Iron and

Steel Industry (VISL).

3. Give an account of the distribution of cotton textile industry in Karnataka.

•   The first Cotton factory, M.S.K. Mill, was established in 1884 at Gulbarga.

•     Later another was started in Hubli. 


•     After independence, cotton mills were set up in  the  northern  maidan  region  where  cotton was grown widely.

•     Davanagere   is   called   the   Manchester   of


•     There are ginning and spinning mills in Hubli, Ilkel, Guledgudda, Rabakavi, Bagalkot, Molakalmuru, Gadag Betagiri, Badami, Belgaum, Naragund, Gokak, Bellary, Hunsur, Nanjangud, Periyapattana and Chamraj nagar.

4.  What  are  the  factors  essential  to  start  a sugar industry?

The factors essential to start a sugar industry are -

sugarcane production, ideal climate, power supply, local market, labour, transport system etc.

5.  Mention  the  reasons  for  centralization  of information technology industry in Bangalore?

Ans.  Bangalore  has  good  climate,  electricity

supply, technical experts, financial assistance, vast market and infrastructure. That is why it has emerged as a center for information technology industry.

III. Match the following:

A                                 B

I. Dandeli                 a. Cement

2. Torangal               b. Cotton Textiles

3. Molakalmuru       c. Paper

4. Shahabad              d. Computers

5. Infosys                 e. Iron and steel

Ans. 1 - (c), 2 - (e), 3 -(b), 4 - (a), 5 - (d).

Chapter – 9

Major Tourist Centers Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. Nandi Hill Station is in                      district.

2. Niagara of Karnataka is                   waterfalls.

3.  Ibrahim  Roza,  a  pilgrimage  is  located  in


4. The beach near Gokarna is 

5. The City of Palaces is 

Ans-   (1)   Chikkaballapur;   (2)   Gokak;   (3) Bijapur;(4) Om;(5) Mysore

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the advantages of tourism?


•     People go to different places from their places to satisfy    their    curiosity,    for    religious celebrations, for peace of mind, relaxation, to see picturesque places, seeking happiness and for improvement of health.

•     In the modem world, tourism has become an inevitable affair of the human life.

•     We  can  gain  knowledge  about  the  place, culture, civilization, life etc.

2. Name the basic facilities needed in a tourist spot.

The basic facilities required in a tourist spot are

tourist homes, lodges with all the facilities and restaurants.

3. Write a note on the Kudremukh hill station.

•     Kudremukh hill station at Chikmaglur district.

•     It is a major hill station in karnataka.

•     It has dense green forest, many hillocks, coffee estates and waterfalls.

4. Name the wildlife sanctuaries of Karnataka. There are about eighteen wild life sanctuaries. Muthodi, Bandipur, Nagarhole, Dandeli, Bhadra

animal sanctuaries and Ranganathittu, Kokkare Bellur, Mandagadde, Gudavi bird sanctuary are the main wildlife sanctuaries of Karnataka.

5. Name the places of historical importance in


Hampi,  Belur,  Halebid,  Somnathpur,  Badami,

Pattadakal, Aihole, Gol Gumbuz of Vijayapura, Lakkundi, Banavasi, Basaralu, Belligave, Mysuru, Srirangapatna etc.

6. Listout some National parks of Karnataka.

There are five national Parks in Karnataka. They

are - Rajiv Gandhi National Park in Nagarahole, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh and Ansi National Park.

III. Match the following:

A                                             B

1. Biligirirangana hills a.Uttara Kannada district

2. Jogi Betta                         b. Chamarajnagar

3. Yana                                 c. Bird sanctuary

4. Anshi                                d. Chitradurga

5. Ranganthittu                    e. National Park

f. Peacock sanctuary

Ans. 1 - (b); 2 - (d); 3 - (a); 4 - (e); 5 - (c). 


Chapter – 10

Population Of Karnataka

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words-

1. The total population of Karnataka according to

the 2011 census is

2. The most populous district of Karnataka in 

3. The district which has more females is 

4. The district which has the least population is

5. The average density of population per in

Karnataka is                   _

Ans. (1) 6,11,30,704; (2) Bangalore Urban; (3) Udupi;(4) Kodagu; (5) 319.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Write a note on the growth of population in


According   to   the   2001   census,   the   total population of Karnataka was 5,28,50,562.

•        In the decade from 2001 to 2011, 80,80,142 persons have been added to the population.

•        The growth rate during this period was 15.67

%. This growth rate is lower than the growth rate of population in India (17.64%).

The reason for this is awareness about family planning  programmes,  literacy  programmes,


4. Write a note on literacy in Karnataka.

The average literacy rate if Karnataka in 2011 was 75.6%.

This rate is higher than the average literacy rate of 74% in India.

When district wise literacy rate is considered, Dakshina Kannada district with 88.6%, occupies the first position.

Bengaluru Urban district occupies the second position (88.5%).

•        Udupi districts occupy the third position.

In  contrast,  Yadgir  with  52.4%  has  lowest literacy rate.

Male  literacy  rate  is  82.9%  whereas  female literacy rate is 68.2% in Karnataka.

When  the  literacy  rates  in  urban  and  rural areas are compared, naturally the literacy rate in urban areas is higher.


Natural Resources

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words-

1. Natural resources are                     of nature.

2. The resources that reproduce within a specified time span are   

birth control etc.


3. Iron ore is



4. Scarcity arises when the need for resources is

2. Name the districts with the highest and the                        than the availability of it. 

lowest density of population.

Bangalore Urban district has the highest density of  population  at  4378  persons  per  sq.  km.  and

occupies the first position. Kodagu district has the lowest density with 135 persons per

3.  Explain  the  Characteristics  of  urban  and rural population in Karnataka.

•        Karnataka is pre-dominant by villages and has

29,406 villages.

As per the 2011 census, they have totally 3.75 crore population.

•        It means, the rural population forms 61.4 and

38.6 (2.35 crore) live in urban areas.

Compared to the average urban population of India, the urban population of Karnataka is greater.

•        It is not distributed equally in all the districts.

Bangalore Urban district has the largest urban population whereas Kodagu district has the smallest urban population.


5. Development emphasizing the availability of resources to meet the needs of future generations is also called as

6.   In  2010,  the  mankind  used_ Earths to meet their requirements.

Ans: (1) gifts (2) renewable resources (3) Non- renewable resources (4) higher (5) conservation (6) 50% of natural resources.

II. Answer the following in one sentence each:

1. What are natural resources?

Resource is all the materials that humans use in

conducting their economic activities of production, exchange and consumption.

2. Give two examples of renewable resources.

Water,  land,  forests,  air,  sunlight  and  heat  are

some examples for renewable resources.

3. Give two examples of abiotic resources.

Water, soil, minerals, etc. are abiotic resources. 


4. What is conservation?

Conservation of natural resources means not to

waste them but use them judiciously so that there is a balance between nature and our use of natural resources.

5. Define ecological footprint.

Ecological footprint is an estimate of the amount

of space on the earth that an individual uses in order to survive, using existing technology.

6. What is recycling?

Recycling  is  the  process  of  turning  waste  and

used items into new, useful materials of products.

III. Answer in 5-6 sentences each:

1. Differentiate between renewable and non- renewable resources.

Renewable resources:

•     These  resources  get  replenished  as  we  use them.

•     Nature, through its natural processes, goes on replenishing them.

•     They     are     also     called     non-exhaustible resources.

•     Water, land, forests, air, sunlight and heat are some examples.

Non-renewable resources:

•     These  resources  get  depleted  as  we  go  on using them.

•     Eventually  they  are  emptied  and  cannot  be created again.

•     These  resources  are  known  as  exhaustible resources.

•     Minerals    like    Iron    ore,    copper,    gold, manganese, bauxite etc.,

•     Nature   cannot   replenish   them   through   its processes.

2. Explain the causes for increasing scarcity of resources.

1. Overpopulation:

2. Growing industrialization:

3. Expanding urban areas:

4. Atmospheric pollution:

5. Water pollution and land degradation:

6. Humans increasing wants are the main causes for increasing scarcity of resources.

3. What are 4Rs? Explain in brief.


4Rs means it is the strategy for Conservation of resources: Reduce, Reuse, Recharge or Regenerate and Research.

1) Reduce: Reduce refers to minimizing the use of resources and their wastage or trying to use less amount of any resource.

2) Reuse: Every resource must be used multiple times.

3)  Recharge  and  regenerate:  This  refers  to taking steps to allow the resource to grow through conscious human efforts.

4)  Research:  Researching  ways  to  find renewable alternatives to non-renewable resources.

4. What steps would you take to conserve energy use in your school and at home?

•     As a student I put off all lights when not in use in our school.

•     Turn the air conditioner and heater off at night.

•     Whenever there is a chance I will get outside for fun because it take less energy.

•     I Keep doors and windows shut when heating or cooling the classroom.

5. What measures will you to take to reduce the ecological footprint?

Food:- I would like to buy organic food, or locally-

grown produce.

•     I will keep my own bags to the store (canvas or reuse plastic/paper).

•     I will buy and eat fewer processed foods.

•     Instead of drinking a juice box, eat a piece of fruit.

•     I eat less meat and dairy products.

•     I eat at home instead of ordering out Energy/Electricity- I put off all lights when not in use.

•     Keep doors and windows shut when heating or cooling the house/car.

Transportation-  Walk  or  ride  your  bicycle  to school.

•     Take public transportation.

•     Creating less waste-

Water- I turn off the tap while brushing my teeth and cleaning utensils.

•     I don’t pour toxics down storm drains.

•     I put a brick in your toilet tank.

•     I prefer Indian type (squatting) toilets more.

Chapter - 2

Human Resources Of India 


I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1.  The  working  people  who  have  knowledge,

talent and skill are called the           of that country.

2. In 2011, the sex ratio was 

3.  Census  takes  place  once  in   

years in India.

4. The quality of population in a country depends on                  and 

5. The average number of children who die below one  year  of  age  for  every  1000  live  births  is called

6. In India, since the birth rate is high and the death rate is                the population growth rate is high.

Ans:- (1) Human resource (2) 943 (3) ten (4) Literacy, skill attainments and life expectancy (5) child/ infant mortality rate

II. Answer the following in one sentence each:

1. Who are the people identified as ‘Working


The  adult  population  who  are  educated  and

healthy and possess the capability to increase the national income are called Working People.

2. What is meant by ‘Human Resources’?

Educated and healthy, working people who work

to increase the nation’s income are called human


3. What was India’s population according to

2011 census?

India’s population according to 2011 census was

121.1 crores.

4. What do you mean by ‘birth rate’?

Birth rate refers to the total number of live births

per thousand of a population in a year.

5. In 2011, India’s birth rate was 22 and death

rate was 6. What is the population growth rate?

Population growth rate formula is –

So 2011 population growth rate is


6. What was the population density of India according to the 2011 census?


According  to  the  2011  census,  the  population density of India is 382.

III. Answer the following.

1.  What  is  Population  Density?  How  is  the population density of a country calculated?

Density of population is the number of people

living per square kilo meter of geographical area. Population density of a country is calculated by

dividing the total population of a country by the total land area.

2. Human Resources are considered very vital among the factors of production. Why?

•     Human resource occupies greater importance in the production of goods and services than natural resources and material resources.

• Human resource provides the skills and workforce needed for production.

•     The people who work in various jobs in the fields of agriculture, industry and service sectors are referred as the workforce.

•     Without human resource no resources can be called resources.

3. What is the role of health and education in developing human resources?

•     Health:- Good health improves not only the quality of life of people but also the quality of

their work.

•     Therefore, if rapid economic development has to be achieved, the health of the people should be improved.

•   Education:- If good education, training are provided to human resources, they can be transformed into human capital.

•     Education can  transfer knowledge and  skills from one generation to the next.

• Through the education anyone can gain knowledge of doctor, engineer and scientists.

4. Why the population growth is high in the developing countries?

•     In  the developing  countries,  the government provides better education and health facilities

and epidemics are brought under control. Due to this, the death rate will decline steeply.

•     On the other hand, the birth rate continues to remain high or decline very slowly.

•     Because of a very high birth rate and steeply falling death rates, the population growth tends to be higher. 


5.  What  measures  are  taken  by  the government to improve the quality of population?

•     Good health improves not only the quality of life  of  people  but  also  the  quality  of  their


•     The governments are providing all facilities to improve the health and nutrition of a woman right from the day she becomes pregnant up to the day she delivers the baby.

•     The National Health Policy of India aims to improve health care, family welfare and nutritional services of the people.

• The  government  has  tried to  provide comprehensive health facilities and thus improve the quality of people.

Chapter - 3

Poverty And Hunger

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1.  The  percentage  poor  according  to  NSSO  in

2004-05 was                    _

2.   The   Indian   government   has   established

                           to buy and store food grains.

3. The Health Insurance that is provided to poor people is called 

4. The project programme for providing old age pension is 

5.  The  price  at  which  government  purchase

             before sowing is called 

Ans:- (1) 27.7% (2) Food corporation of India (3) yashashwini scheme (4) Sandhya Suraksha yojana (5) Minimum support price.

II. Answer the following in a sentence each:

1. Give the meaning of ‘poverty’.

The condition in which people are deprived of

their fundamental needs like food, clothing, shelter, education and health is called poverty.

2. What are the basic requirements of human beings?

Food, clothing, shelter, education and health are

the basic requirements of human beings.

3. What is ‘poverty line’?

Poverty line represents  the estimated  minimum

level   of   income   needed   to   secure   the   basic necessities of life.


4.  What is  the indicator framed  to  measure amount of hunger?

‘Global  Hunger  Index  (GHI)’  is  the  indicator

framed to measure amount of hunger.

5. What is ‘food security’?

Food Security refers to the system which ensures

the provision of food at all times to everyone in the country.

6. What is Buffer Stock?

System  of  purchasing  food  grains  and  making

them  available  for  public  distribution  is  called buffer stock.

III. Answer the following questions-

1. How is poverty identified in India?

•     Dadabhai Naoroji used the concept of ‘poverty line’ to identify the poor.

•     After independence also,  the poverty line is being   used   as   the   yardstick   to   measure poverty.

•     In 2005, Suresh Tendulkar Committee adopted the monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) on education, health, electricity and transport, along with food, to determine the poverty line.

• C. Rangarajan Committee following the Tendulkar Committee recommendations fixed the poverty line expenditure at Rs. 32 in rural areas and Rs. 47 in urban areas.

2. What are the indicators of poverty?

•     Poverty line,

• Suresh Tendulkar Committee adopted the monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE),

•     World Bank identifies a person who is unable to spend $1.25 for daily consumption as being below the poverty line.

3.  What  are  the  reasons  for  persistence  of hunger in India?

•     Lack of purchasing power among the poor.

•     The shortcomings in the distribution of food grains to the people.

•     Rapid increase in population

•     Low level and growth of national income

•     Rise in price level

•     Unemployment

•     Capital deficiency.

4.    Explain    the    working    of    the    public distribution system in India. 


•  The food grains procured by the FCI are distributed to the poor people at lesser than market prices through the fair price shops. This is called as the public distribution system.

•     Food grains, sugar, kerosene, cooking oil and other  essential  items  are  distributed  through these fair price shops.

•     The  government  has  taken  steps  to  open  fair price shops in all villages, towns and cities.

•     Govt. issued different types of cards depending


• Handicapped people and helpless people incapable of doing any work get disability pension every month.

•     Poor widows get widow pension every month.

Chapter - 4

Labour And Employment

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 

upon the economic status.


1. Labour is a


input in production. 

•     These cards entitle specific quantities of various items to the people.

•  BPL  (Below  poverty  line)  ration  cards, Antyodaya Anna Yojana scheme is being implemented  under  which  very  poor  families are distributed food grains at very low prices.

5.   List   out   the   measures   taken   by   the


2. Working age group refers to                    years.

3. The share of female workers in total workforce of India is about

4. As economic development takes place, share of workers in                      sector declines.

5. MGNREGA was passed in the year 

Ans:  (1)  human  (2)  between  16  and  60  (3)


government to eradicate poverty.

1) Economic development measures


3.35% (4) primary (5) 25

II. Answer the following:


august 2005. 

2)   Implementation   of   poverty   eradication


a. Self-employment programmes:

i.     The     ‘Integrated     Rural     Development

Programme’ (IRDP)

ii.    The    ‘Swarnajayanti    Grama    Swarozgar

Yojana’ (SGSY)

iii. The ‘Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana


iv. The National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM)  also  called  as  Deen  Dayal Antyodaya Yojana.

b. Wage Employment programmes:

‘Mahatma  Gandhi  National  Rural  Employment

Guarantee Scheme’.

3) Provision of minimum basic amenities:

•     The ‘Minimum Needs Programme (MNP)’

•     Health  insurance  is  being  provided  to  poor

people under ‘Yashaswini’ scheme.

•     Houses  are  constructed  for  the  poor  under

‘Indira     Awas     Yojana’,     and     ‘Valmiki-

Ambedkar Awas Yojana’;

•     ‘Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana’ (PMGY)

4) Social Security Measures.

6. Explain social security  measures for poor people.

•     Deserted  old  people  get  old  age  allowance

every    month    under    ‘Sandhya    Suraksha



1. What is the meaning of labour?

The capacity to exercise physical or mental effort

for the purpose of producing goods or services by human beings is called labour.

2. What is unorganized sector?

The small and scattered units which are largely

outside the control of the government and hardly follows any rules and regulations are called unorganized sector.

3. Define unemployment.

Unemployment is a situation where a person is

able to engage in work at the prevailing wage rate in the market but is unable to find work.

4. How is unemployment rate measured?

Unemployment rate is calculated as a percentage

of labour force not getting work.

5. Explain the main causes of unemployment in India.

The major causes of unemployment in India are:

•     The use of modern technology resulted in low level of employment creation. The low level of growth in primary sector curtailed the job opportunities at rural level.

•     Increase in labour force/ Population growth-

•     Inappropriate technology:

•     Dependence on agriculture

•     Decline of small scale and cottage industries.

•     Low mobility of labour: 


6. What are the types of unemployment?

Different kinds of unemployment are-

•     Semi unemployment,

•     hidden unemployment,

•     technical unemployment,

•     intermittent unemployment,

•     optional unemployment,

•     unemployment of the educated and uneducated unemployment etc.

7.  Write  the  objectives  and  functioning  of


Objectives of MGNREGS- it provides a legal

guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.

Functioning of MGNREGS- Government fails to do so, then the person is given unemployment allowance.

NREGA covers the entire country with the exception of districts that have a hundred percent urban population.

It boosted access to a bank account by women as the wages are transferred electronically to the beneficiary’s account.


Chapter - 1

Management Of Business

I. Answer in a sentence.

1. What is management?

Generally   management   is   the   principles   of

managing the activities of an enterprise.

2. What do you mean by decision making?

Decision making is the mental process, resulting

in the selection of a course of action among several activities.

3. What is individual decision and what is collective decision?

The  individual  decision  taken  by  sole  trading

concerns is individual decision. Whereas Decision making by a  group of  people as  in  the  case of Partnership firms and Board of Directors as in the


case  of  Joint  Stock  Companies  or  Co-operative

Societies are called Group decisions.

4. What is the principle of authority and responsibility in principles of management?

This   principle   refers   to   the   authority   and

responsibility,   which   are   the   combination   of official authority and personal responsibility. Both are compounded with intelligence, experience, past experience, moral worth etc.,

II. Answer the following questions-

1. What are the principles of management suggested by Henry Fayol?

Henry Fayol suggested principles are-

1)   Division of Work:

2)   Authority and responsibility

3)   Discipline

4)   Unity of command

5)   Unity of Direction

6)   Sub-ordination   of   Individual   interest   to

General interest

7)   Remuneration of personnel

8)   Centralisation

9)   Scalar chain:

10) Equity.

11) Stability of security to personnel

12) Initiative

13) Espirit De-Corps

2. What are the functional areas of management?

The Managerial functions may be classified into

different areas.

(1) Planning (2) Organising (3) Staffing (4) Directing (5) Co-ordinating (6) Controlling.

3.  Write  about  the  authority  and responsibility, scalar chain and centralization in principles of management.

Authority  and  responsibility:  This  principle

refers to the authority and responsibility, which are the combination of official authority and personal responsibility. Both are compounded with intelligence, experience, past experience, moral worth etc.,

Scalar chain:

This principle means that every enterprise should

subordinates at various levels should be clearly defined. 


4. What is the need for decision making in management of business?

•   To achieve their objectives and goals the business organisation has to take decision.

•     There are number of choices available even in  a  small  matter.  He  has  to  choose  one among   the   several   alternatives   and   that alternative should be best suited and economical.

• It is based on the decision which the businessman has taken.

•  Thus the decision making plays a very significant role in the business.

5. What are the important elements of decision making?

Important elements of Decision making :

• Establishing goals

• Defining tasks

• Searching for alternatives

• Developing plans

• Rational thinking and reasoning

• Situation

• Evaluation

6. What factors are to be kept in mind, while taking a decision?

The  following  factors  are  to  be  kept  in  mind

while taking decisions.

• Analysing the problem.

• Planning of course of action.

• Maintaining courage and patience.

• Foresightedness.

• Ability to take quick and wise decision.

7. What do you mean by planning and organisation  in  functional  areas  of management?

Planning:   It   involves   the   future   course   of

operation  for  a  given  period.  The  process  of planning includes determination of organizational objective   and   formulation   of   plans,   policies, strategies, programmes, procedures and schedules. Organising: It is the process of bringing together the man power and material resources. Some of the material  resources  are  machines  and  materials. Putting  the  material  resources  and  man  power together   into   working   order   to   achieve   the objectives is the main purpose of the organizing area   of   managerial   function.   It   also   involves delegation of sufficient authority to the managers and establishment of linking together the various positions to the purpose of enabling the people to

work in a co-ordinated manner.


8. How is controlling an important area of managerial function?

It is an important area of the managerial function.

It covers almost all the management activities. It keeps check on other functions of management. It is a function that every manager in the organization has to perform.

9. What are the main objectives of controlling areas?

The main objectives of controlling area are :

a) to create an atmosphere of order and discipline in the organization to ensure proper co-ordination of activities.

b) to ensure confirmation of actual performance with the pre-determined plans.

c)   to   achieve   the   increase   of   the   overall efficiency of the organization.

10. “Directing and co-ordinations are very important functions  in  business  management” how?

Directing is the area of functional management

where instructing, guiding, supervising and leading the people of an organization towards accomplishment of the organizational goals. It is issuing orders or instructions to the sub-ordinates and make certain that the instructions are properly carried out and the operations are successfully planned.

Co-ordination is the harmonious blending of the activities of the different departments for the achievement of the desired goals. It is the arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of actions in the pursuit of common purpose.

Chapter - 2

Financial Management

I. Fill in the blanks

1. Business enterprises require two types of finance,

they are                        and                       .

2.  ‘The  suppliers  of  goods  raise  credit  from  the buyers,’ it is called 

3. The business concerns raise credit to carry out day to day affairs and is called                       .

4. For immediate needs the business institutions get credit from 

5. The capital of joint-stock companies is divided

into small units. They are called                       .

6.  The  bank  that  supplies  credit  to  import  and export trade is called 

7. The IFCI was started in the year                        . 


8. The first share market of India was started at


Ans:- (1) Short term, long term (2) trade credit (3)  loan/  bank  credit  (4)  indigenous  bankers/ money lenders (5) shares (6) EXIM Bank (7) 1948 (8) London.

II.  Answer  the  following  questions  in  two  to three sentences each.

1.  What  is  the  meaning  of  financial management?

Acquisition of funds and their effective utilization,

keeping in mind the overall objectives of the concern is financial management.

2. Which are the two types of finance required by the business concerns? Give examples.

Short term finance: Finance that is required for

day-to-day working is called Short term finance. Example- to purchase raw materials, to pay wages and  salaries,  to  meet  the  marketing  and administrative expenses.

Long   term   finance:   finance   required   for   the

development programmes such as expansion of the level of production, modernization of production methods. Ex: To procure fixed assets, establishing new undertaking etc.

3. Mention any four sources of short term credit required by business concerns?

a)  Trade  credit:  It  is  the  credit  obtained  by  the

suppliers of goods.

b) Bank credit or Bank loan: Generally the business houses borrow money from  banks for  a period of

three months to one year.

c) Advance from customers: receive money in advance of supplying the goods.

d) Short term public deposit or installment credit.

4. Why business concerns require short term finance?

(i)  Short  term  finance  is  required  to  meet  the

working capital needs. i.e. to purchase raw materials, to pay wages and salaries, to meet the marketing and

administrative expenses.

(ii) There is always a time gap between sales and receipt of sale proceeds. To fill the financial gap between these two processes namely sales and receipt

of sale proceeds sufficient funds are required.

5. What do you mean by long term finance?

The    finance    required    for    the    development

programmes such as expansion of the level of production,  modernization  of  production  methods


and  fixed capital of an undertaking is called  long term finance.

6. Give the names of any three organizations in

the field of ‘Mutual funds’

Unit Trust of India (U.T.I.), S.B.I. Magnum equity

fund, LIC growth fund, UTI Market plan, Prudential ICICI balance fund, HDFC income fund, Bajaj allianze etc.,

At international level, Global deposit receipts (G.D.R.), American Deposit Receipt (AMD) are important Mutual fund companies.

III.  Answer  the  following  questions,  each  in about eight to ten sentences.

1. What is the role and importance of finance to business concerns?

1. Without finance no business activity is possible.

2.  Finance  helps  to  obtain  resources  that  are required   in   the   process   of   production   and

marketing of goods and services.

3. Finance helps business enterprise for the smooth running.

4.  Finance  guides  and  regulates  the  investment

decisions and expenditure.

5. Finance helps for modernization, diversification, expansion and development of an enterprise.

6. Finance is essential to undertake research, market survey, advertisement and publicity for effective

marketing of the products.

7. Finance is required to develop industries in backward areas.

8. Financial stability will enhance the credit worthiness of the concern.

2. Explain briefly the purposes for which long term finance is required by business concerns?

Long term finance refers to finance required for the development programmes such as expansion of  the  level  of  production,  modernization  of

production methods etc.,

This   type   of   finance   is   also   required   for financing the fixed capital of an undertaking. Ex: To procure fixed assets, establishing new undertaking etc.

3. “Issue of shares and debentures play a very important role in long term credit.” What are they? How do they help?

Issue of Shares: To start a joint stock company, the

promoters issue shares. Also whenever they need additional capital for long term purpose, the companies raise the funds through issue of shares to the public.

Debentures: The joint-stock companies are empowered to borrow finance for meeting long term 


financial requirements through the issue of Debentures. Debentures are the debts or loans borrowed by the companies.


1. Fill in the blanks

1. The book in which the daily business transactions

are recorded is called 

2.  The  transaction  “Paid  salaries”  comes  under 

4. What is the part played by Industrial Finance                                  kind of accounts. 

Corporation      (IFC)      and      State      Finance


3. The Modern and scientific method of maintaining 

Corporations (SFS) in financing business?

1) Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI):


accounts   is   called   



system  of  Book 

The  Corporation  grants  loans  to  public  limited companies and to co-operative societies. State owned

public limited companies can also borrow funds from

the corporation.

2) State Finance Corporations (SFC’s):


4. The difference between the debit and credit side of an account is called

5. The two accounts of “commenced business with

cash are”                      and 

6.  The  profit  earned  by  Trade  is  transferred  to 

The main objective of State Finance Corporations is                account. 

to provide long term finance to small and medium scale industries in their respective states.

5. What are long term public deposits and what are their advantages to public?

A company can accept public deposits to meet long

term  financial  needs.  This  is  long  term  public

deposits. Advantages:-

The procedure to get these deposits is simple and does not involve many formalities.

A  company  can  accept  these  deposits  for  a period not exceeding 5 year (60 months).

The deposits are unsecured and 8% to 10% of interest is allowed.

6. What do you mean by Money market and how is it different from capital market?

Money market is a system where the funds can be

borrowed under money market for a short period for working capital.

7.  Explain  in  brief  the  part  played  by  stock exchange in financial matters of business.

The   Stock   exchanges   regulate   and   control business   in   buying,   selling   and   dealing   in


•        They are regulated by the government.

They do not engage only in the purchase and sale of securities but provide a place where members  can  carryout  their  business  on  their own account under codes, rules and regulations.

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) was set up for the purpose of providing a nation wide stock

trading facility to investors, so as to bring the Indian financial market in line with international financial markets.

Chapter - 3

Accounting In Business


7.  “The  permanent  assets lose  a  portion  of their value every year” it is called 

8. The difference between Assets and Liabilities of a Trade is called 

Ans:- (1) Rough book (2) nominal (3) double entry (4) balance of account (5) cash account, capital account (6) profit and loss (7) depreciation (8) capital.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Which is the book of original entry in Accounting? Why is it called the book of original entry?

Journal  is  called  the  book  of  original  entry  in


Full particulars of the transactions are recorded first in the Journal. So it is called the book of original entry.

2. What are the types of Accounts? Give examples.

Accounts are classified into three types.

Personal accounts: The ledger accounts which are maintained to record the transactions carried out with persons or firms are called Personal Accounts. Ex-

Suresh’s a/c, xco’s a/c. etc., Bank a/c.

Real accounts: The ledger accounts that are maintained by the business concerns  to record the assets which the firm possesses. ex : Building’s a/c, Cash a/c, Furniture a/c, Machinery a/c. etc.,

Nominal accounts: The business concerns have to maintain separate accounts for the profits or incomes it earns and for losses or expenses it incurs. These accounts are called Nominal Accounts. Ex : Rent a/c, Salaries a/c, interest a/c, commission a/c, Rates &

Taxes a/c, Insurance Premium paid etc.,

3. What is the need for accounting in business?

Accounting records of a business concern are the permanent records of transactions relating to its income and expenditure. 

Accounting  records  provide  full  information about business transactions. The permanent assets lose their value every year. It is called Depreciation.

Accounting helps a business concern to compare It is deducted from the asset and shown as a loss.

results of the business from year to year.

Accounting   helps   to   ascertain   the   financial The total debit and credit balances of personal

accounts   except   capital   account   and   Bank

position of a business concern. account are shown together.

Accounting helps a business concern to know The  total  debit  balances  of  personal  accounts

the amount due to others and amount due from represents as ‘Sundry Debtors’ and total credit

others. balances represents as ‘Sundry Creditors’.

Accounts are the documentary evidence required In the trial balance bank balance is shown as

to  prove  the  status  of  business  concern  to cash at Bank and capital account is shown as

government or to other agencies as and when Capital.   The   difference   between   assets   &

required. Accounts are required even in case of liabilities is called capital.

legal matters.


•        Accounting   records   and   reports   help   the

management of a concern in its future planning and decision making process.

4. What is Double-entry system of book keeping? Every  business  transaction  involves  two  aspects. One  aspect  gives  the  benefit  and  another  aspect receives  the  benefit.  Both  these  aspects  are  to  be recorded  in  books.  For  every  aspect  there  is  an account  in  ledger.  Every  ledger  account  has  two sides, one account receives the benefit and another account gives the benefit. While entering the aspects we enter two aspects on opposite sides. This system

is called Double entry system.

5. Which are the final accounts? What is the result of Profit and loss account?

Trial    Balance    is    prepared    to    ascertain    the

arithmetical   accuracy   of   ledger   accounts.   After ascertaining  the  arithmetical  accuracy  of  Ledger,

Final accounts are prepared.

The result is Gross profit or Gross loss. Profit and Loss account contains Gross profit or Gross loss, brought down from trading account and also all the

expenses or losses and all gains or profits which are of non-trading items.

6. “There is no need to find out the balance of goods  sold  account  and  goods  purchases  a/c? Why?

Goods  account   appears  as   goods  purchases account and goods sales account.

So  also  goods  returns  account  as  purchases returns accounts and sales returns account.

These accounts are  not balanced but  taken as purchases   account   sales   account,   purchases

returns account, sales returns account and shown

in trial balance.

7. What is the result of depreciation of fixed assets?


8. What is the difference between Money market

and Capital market?


Thanks for reading 9th std social science notes eng version freedom

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